Cape Rockjumper / Chaetops frenatus

Cape Rockjumper / Chaetops frenatus

Cape Rockjumper

SCI Name:  Chaetops frenatus
Protonym:  Malurus frenatus Pl.Col. livr.65 pl.385
Taxonomy:  Passeriformes / Chaetopidae /
Taxonomy Code:  rufroc1
Type Locality:  South Africa [= River Zonde Einde Mountains, Cape Province, vide Vincent, 1952, Check List Birds South Africa, p. 64] .
Publish Year:  1826
IUCN Status:  


(Chaetopidae; Ϯ Cape Rockjumper C. frenatus) Gr. χαιτη khaitē  hair; ωψ ōps, ωπος ōpos  face (cf. “= bristle eye, referring to presence of eyelashes” (Hockey et al. 2005)); “15. Genus, CHAËTOPS.  Bill moderate, thrush-like, notched; nostrils basal, large, naked, membranaceous; the aperture lateral, linear. Frontal feathers rigid, the shafts composed of bristles; chin feathers the same, but weaker. Rictus bristled. Wings very short, rounded. Tail rather lengthened, broad, convex, soft, the middle feathers even, the two lateral pairs graduated. Tarsi very long, strong; anterior scales divided; lateral toes unequal. Claws small, obtuse, and slightly curved; the three anterior of equal size.   Type—Ch. Burchelli   ...   OBS.—I have given the full characters of this and the next genus [Pellorneum] on account of their extreme rarity. Chaëtops was discovered by Mr. Burchell in southern Africa.” (Swainson 1832); "Chaëtops Swainson, 1832, in Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer., (1831), p. 486. Type, by original designation, Ch.(aëtops) Burchelli Swainson = Malurus frenatus Temminck." (Ripley in Peters, 1964, X, p. 28).

frenata / frenatus
L. frenatus  bridled  < frenare  to bridle  < frena, frenorum  bridle, reins  < frenum  bridle, curb, bit   < frendere  to grind the teeth (e.g. coloured malar or moustachial streaks or patterned lores).
 "3.  PTILOTIS FRENATA, nov. sp.   Of this new species, for which I beg leave to propose the name of P. frenata, on account of the markings at the base of the bill and round the face, some few individuals were obtained frequenting the Eucalypti while in blossom, near the margin of a swamp in the Cardwell district." (Ramsay 1875) (Bolemoreus).
• "MÉRION BRIDÉ.  MALURUS FRENATUS. TEMM.   Nous désignons ce Mérion par l'épithète mentionnée, vu qu'il porte de chaque côté du cou une bande blanche longitudinale partant de l'angle du bec, et disposée sur le cou comme s'il était muni de brides." (Temminck 1826) (Chaetops).
• "Nectarinia frenata, s. sp. is over het geheel zeer naauw verwant aan Nect. eximia, Temm. (Nect. pectoralis, Horsf.), doch het mannetje mist de metaal-zwartachtig blaauwe vlek op het voorhoofd, terwijl het aan iedere zijde van het hoofd twee (ééne boven en ééne beneden het oog) smalle, licht gele, overlangsche strepen heeft." (S. Müller 1843) (subsp. Cinnyris jugularis).
• "FALCO.   ...   656. F. frenatus Ill. Fem.  Buse brune des champs Azar. 33. Brasil.  Obs. Hujus Mas: Epervier noir et blanc Azar. 28.  F. leucomelas Ill." (Lichtenstein 1823) (syn. Circus cinereus ☼).
• "*304 B. — Cyornis frenatus, Sp. Nov.  ...  The prominent feature of this new species is a broad pure white streak from the point of the forehead to the upper part of the eye, extending a little beyond the level of the anterior angle of the latter.  The greater part of the lores, at any rate that portion immediately in front of the eye, is black." (Hume 1880) (syn. Cyornis rufigastra).
• "SCOLOPAX.   ...   770. S. Gallinago Lin. —  Aegypt. Senegamb.   Not. Sc. frenata Ill. e Brasilia (Becassime Azar. 387.)  vix a Gallinagine distinguenda." (Lichtenstein 1823) (syn. Gallinago paraguaiae).
• "CHLOROTHRAUPIS CARMIOLI FRENATA subsp. n.   Chl. Chl. carmioli dictae simillima, differt loris plumulisque frontalibus naribus proximis flavescentibus, nec pileo concoloribus (olivaceis)" (von Berlepsch 1907) (Habia).
• "Zahlreiche, von uns verglichene Exemplare des sogenannten M. Bullockii aus Sennaar unterscheiden sich constant von dem Vogel Westafrica's durch den türkisblauen Saum, welcher, unter dem Kinne herlaufend, den schwarzen Kopfseitenfleck untenher ganz, oben aber auf der Stirn, deutlich sichtbar bis über das Auge hinaus begränzt.  Diese Zeichnung ist beiden Geschlechtern eigenthümlich und fehlt dem ächten M. Bullockii Westafrica's durchaus, welcher, wie Swainson mit Recht bemerkt, nur einen schwach bläulichen Anflug vor den Nasenlöchern zeigt.  Zudem ist der dunkelblaue Saum des schwarzen Flügelflecks bei dem Vogel Ostafrica's, für welchen wir den Namen M. frenatus vorschlagen, schöner und deutlicher, als bei M. Bullockii." (Hartlaub 1854) (subsp. Merops bulocki).
• "*No. 22.  S. frenata. —  Saxicola frenata Heugl. —  Saxicola (?) Heugl. Cab. Journ. 1862. p. 290. —  Saxicola Kotschyana Pr. Würt. Coll. Mergenth —  S. ferruginea Heugl. Syst. Ueb. No. 234.  ...  loris et regione parotica nigerrimis; stria supraoculari a naribus orta, mento, gula, tectricibus superioribus caudae albis" (von Heuglin 1869) (Oenanthe).
• "LA PERRUCHE A COLLIER ROSE.  ...  une petite ligne noire du coin de l'œil aux narines." (Levaillant, 1801, Hist. nat. perroquets, I, text to pl. XXII); description not yet seen (Lichtenstein, 1820, Zweites Preisverzeichniss Doubletten Zool. Mus. K. Univ. Berlin, p. 1) (syn. Psittacula krameri).
• "As Mr. Sharpe [Cat. Birds B. M. III, p. 278] has already pointed out, the Sumatran and Malaccan birds are specifically distinct from those from Java (virgatus Temm.) by their larger size, and by the grayish brown color being much darker and reaching up to the chin, leaving the moustaches pure white  ...  In our three specimens from Borneo, amongst which only one fully adult male, the bill is considerably larger and stouter than in those from Sumatra.  ...  If the mentioned characters might prove to hold good in more material than I have at my disposal, I would propose to separate the Bornean specimens under the name of T. frenatus, under which name Temminck separated the mentioned three specimens from Borneo from those from Java and Sumatra as a new species, though this latter, as so many others, were never published." (Büttikofer 1887) (subsp. Tephrodornis virgatus).
• "5)  Columba frenata.   C. capite olivaceo-griseo; sincipite dilutiore; gula pure alba; deraeo laete cano; facie subtiliter cinereo-rufescente a parauchenio vitta nigra separata; regione auriculari macula oblonga nigricante" (von Tschudi 1843) (Zentrygon).
• see  fretensis (syn. Hirundo rustica gutturalis).