Cardinal Woodpecker / Chloropicus fuscescens

Cardinal Woodpecker / Chloropicus fuscescens

Cardinal Woodpecker

SCI Name:  Chloropicus fuscescens
Protonym:  Picus fuscescens Nouv.Dict.Hist.Nat. 26 p.86
Category:  Piciformes / Picidae /
Taxonomy Code:  carwoo1
Type Locality:  South Africa, based on Levaillant, pi. 253 ; Grootvaders Bosch [Swellendam dist.. Cape Province], selected as type locality by Roberts, 1924, p. 83.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1818
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

Chloropicus
(Picidae; syn. Dendropicos † Fire-bellied Woodpecker D. pyrrhogaster) Gr. χλωρος khlōros  green; Late Gr. πικος pikos  woodpecker  < L. picus  woodpecker; "1. P. (Chloropicus) PYRRHOGASTER.   ...   2.       P. (Brachypternopicus) RUBROPYGIALIS.  ...  3. P. (Chloropicus) KIRKII.   ...   4. P. (Chloropicus) RUFOVIRIDIS.   ...   5. P. (Chloropicus) XANTHODERUS." (Malherbe 1845); "Chloropicus Malherbe, 1845, Revue Zoologique, VIII, p. 399.  For the benefit of The Key, type here fixed by subsequent designation, Picus (Chloropicus) pyrrhogaster Malherbe, 1845." (JAJ 2021).   
Var. Chloropicos.

fuscescens
Mod. L. fuscescens, fuscescentis  blackish  < L. fuscare  to darken  <  fuscus  dark, black.
● ex “Petit Pic à Baguettes d’Or” of Levaillant 1808, pl. 253 (Dendropicos).
● ex “Aguila parda” (= ☼) of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 9 (syn. Geranoaetus melanoleucus).
● ex “Worm-eater” of Sloane 1707-1725, “Ficedula jamaicensis” of Brisson 1760, “Figuier brun” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Brown-throated Warbler” of Latham 1783 (unident.).
● ex “Orange-vented Fly-catcher” of Latham 1783 (unident.).

SUBSPECIES

Cardinal Woodpecker (fuscescens)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens fuscescens
fuscescens
Mod. L. fuscescens, fuscescentis  blackish  < L. fuscare  to darken  <  fuscus  dark, black.
● ex “Petit Pic à Baguettes d’Or” of Levaillant 1808, pl. 253 (Dendropicos).
● ex “Aguila parda” (= ☼) of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 9 (syn. Geranoaetus melanoleucus).
● ex “Worm-eater” of Sloane 1707-1725, “Ficedula jamaicensis” of Brisson 1760, “Figuier brun” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Brown-throated Warbler” of Latham 1783 (unident.).
● ex “Orange-vented Fly-catcher” of Latham 1783 (unident.).

Cardinal Woodpecker (natalensis)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens natalensis
natalensis
Natal or Port Natal / Durban, South Africa (named Terra Natalis Land of the Holy Birth, by Vasco da Gama when his expedition sailed along the coast in December 1497).

Cardinal Woodpecker (centralis)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens centralis
centralis
L. centralis, centrale  central, in the middle  < centrum  middle point, centre  < Gr. κεντρον kentron  sharp point, stationary point of a pair of compasses.  A good proportion of the names here refer to forms collected in "Central Africa," i.e. the eastern Congo and the Rift Valley lakes (e.g. subsp. Bradypterus baboecala, subsp. Chlorocichla flaviventris, subsp. Malimbus rubricollis, subsp. Sarothrura pulchra, subsp. Turdus pelios).  Some further examples follow.
• "Dieselbe steht in Bezug auf Grösse zwischen cardinalis und massaicus in der Mitte." (Neumann 1900) (subsp. Dendropicos fuscescens).  
• "Distribution. Endemic to Peru on east Andean slope from Río Huallaga through Pasco to Junín west of the Río Ene and north of the Río Mantaro  ...  The scientific name reflects the range of this species near the geographic center of Peru." (Hosner et al. in M. Isler et al. 2020) (Grallaria).
• "Intermediate in size between N. f. flavicollis (Vieill.) and N. f. melanoxantha (Lcht.)" (Hellmayr 1907) (subsp. Hemithraupis flavicollis).
• "These birds are intermediate between N. famosa and N. cupreonitens, and resemble birds labelled by Neumann in the Tring Museum with the MS. name Nectarinia famosa centralis" (van Someren 1916) (subsp. Nectarinia famosa).
• "RANGE. —Eastern part of the central Solomon Islands (Kulambangra, New Georgia, Vangunu, and Gatukai)." (Mayr 1932) (subsp. Pachycephala pectoralis).
• "zentralbrasilianischen Hochlandes (Matto-grosso.  S. Goyaz.  N.-São Paulo.  W.-Minas Geraës)" (Hellmayr 1920) (subsp. Ramphocelus carbo).
• "the Central American form is named CICCABA VIRGATA CENTRALIS, subsp. nov.  ...  Chivela, Oaxaca, Mexico." (Griscom 1929) (subsp. Strix virgata).
• "Tang- (Dang-) la Range, Central Tibet, Tang-la Pass" (Sushkin 1926) (subsp. Tetraogallus tibetanus).               

Cardinal Woodpecker (hartlaubii)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens hartlaubii
hartlaubia / hartlaubii
Carl Johann Gustav Hartlaub (1814-1900) German ornithologist, collector (syn. Accipiter erythropus, Anabathmis, syn. Campephaga flava, syn. Cisticola marginatus, syn. Crithagra mozambica caniceps (ex Crithagra chrysopyga Hartlaub, 1857), subsp. Dendropicos fuscescens, syn. Eubucco bourcierii, syn. Falcipennis falcipennis (ex Tetrao falcipennis Hartlaub, 1855), LarusLissotis, syn. Mandingoa nitidula, subsp. Onychognathus fulgidus, Pteronetta, Turdoides).

Cardinal Woodpecker (lafresnayi)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens lafresnayi
lafresnayana / lafresnayanus / lafresnayei / lafresnayi / lafresnayii
Noël Frédéric Armand Baron André de La Fresnaye (1783-1861) French ornithologist, collector (Aegithina, subsp. Campylorhamphus trochilirostris, syn. Catamenia analis analoides, syn. Centropus toulou, subsp. Dendrocincla fuliginosa, subsp. Dendropicos fuscescens, Diglossa, ‡Gallirallus, syn. Knipolegus nigerrimusLafresnaya, subsp. Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger, Merops, syn. Myrmotherula axillaris, Picumnus, syn. Sporophila collaris melanocephala, syn. Strophocincla cachinnans, syn. Xenopirostris xenopirostris).

Cardinal Woodpecker (sharpii)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens sharpii
sharpii
Dr Richard Bowdler Sharpe (1847-1909) British ornithologist at BMNH 1872-1909, founder member of BOC 1892 (syn. Accipiter fasciatus polycryptus, subsp. Antigone antigone, Apalis, syn. Apus horus, subsp. Argya rubiginosa, syn. Bradornis boehmiBycanistes, subsp. Corvus corone, subsp. Crithagra sulphurata, subsp. Dendropicos fuscescens, subsp. Lonchura castaneothorax, syn. Megaceryle maxima gigantea, syn. Melaenornis pallidus bowdleri, Mirafra, syn. Nesocharis capistrata, syn. Pelecanus onocrotalus, Pholia, subsp. Ploceus baglafecht, syn. Pternistis clappertoni, syn. Streptopelia turtur rufescens, syn. Urocissa flavirostris cucullata) (see sharpei).

Cardinal Woodpecker (lepidus)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens lepidus
lepidus
L. lepidus  charming, elegant  < lepos, leporis  charm.

Cardinal Woodpecker (massaicus)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens massaicus
massaica / massaicum / massaicus
Massai, Masai or Maasai, a semi-nomadic people of Kenya and northern Tanzania.

Cardinal Woodpecker (hemprichii)
SCI Name: Chloropicus fuscescens hemprichii
hemprichii
Friedrich Wilhelm Hemprich (1796-1825) German naturalist, explorer in Egypt, the Middle East and Arabia 1820-1825 (subsp. Dendropicos fuscescens, syn. Geronticus eremitaLarus, Lophoceros, subsp. Saxicola torquatus).