Dickcissel / Spiza americana

Dickcissel / Spiza americana


SCI Name:  Spiza americana
Protonym:  Emberiza americana Syst.Nat. 1 pt2 p.872
Taxonomy:  Passeriformes / Cardinalidae /
Taxonomy Code:  dickci
Type Locality:  New York.
Publish Year:  1789
IUCN Status:  


(Cardinalidae; Ϯ Dickcissel S. americana) Gr. σπιζα spiza  common type of finch, identifed by most later authors as the Common Chaffinch  < σπιζω spizō  to chirp; "E. americana.  ... This bird, which is peculiar to America, has been described by Gmelin and Latham under two different names in the genera EMBERIZA and FRINGILLA, as their F. flavicollis seems to be no other than an imperfect state of plumage owing to age. The americana is certainly not an EMBERIZA, and is evidently congeneric with some of Wilson's FRINGILLÆ, such as F. melodia, savanna, socialis, passerina, &c. For these birds I was about to propose the adoption of a new genus, under the name of SPIZA, (Greek appellation of the FRINGILLA cœlebs) intermediate between FRINGILLA and EMBERIZA, but much more closely allied to the former. After an attentive examination of the intermediate species, I shall, however, consider it a subgenus under FRINGILLA." (Bonaparte 1824); "GENERE FRINGILLA   |   SOTTOGENERE SPIZA (a)   ...   (a) Esaminando non ha guari per la prima volta la rarissima Emberiza melanocephala di Sardegna, avemmo la sorpresa di ritrovarvi tutt' i caratteri del nostro Sottogenere Americano Spiza. Riconoscemmo inoltre, che quest' uccello è il perfetto analogo della Fringilla americana tipo de quel Sottogenere." (Bonaparte 1827); "Spiza Bonaparte, 1824, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 4, p. 45. Type, by subsequent designation (Bonaparte, 1827, Specchio Comp. Ornith. Roma Filadelfia, p. 47), Emberiza americana Gmelin." (Paynter in Peters 1970, XIII, 216).
Var. Spidza, Spizza, Spitza, Schiza.
Synon. Clibanus, Euspina, Euspiza, Hortulanus, Tanagroides.
● (syn. Fringilla Ϯ Common Chaffinch F. coelebs) "I know of no generic name that has been applied hitherto, exclusively to the chaffinch genus. The appellation Spiza is, I think, the most appropriate, and the best that could be affixed to these birds, the common chaffinch being undoubtedly the σπιζα of Aristotle; but the term, Spiza, unfortunately, has already been employed by Bonaparte to designate a genus of American birds (the painted bunting or nonpareil finch, Emberiza ciris, WILSON, and its immediate congeners), and according to the generally received rules of nomenclature, that genus must retain the name first given to it, however inapplicable and inappropriate it may chance to be; but the time must finally arrive, when a complete and thorough alteration will take place throughout zoological nomenclature, and I consider it now to be almost the duty of every lover of Natural History to endeavour, as far as he is able, to improve the systematic arrangements of the various productions of nature.  ...  Thus, speaking of the birds now under consideration, we might say "the chaffinch (Spiza leucoptera, Fringilla cælebs, LIN.), the bramblefinch (Spiza montana, Fringilla montifringilla,  LIN.), or the ring-ousel (Petrocincla meruloides, Turdus torquatus, LIN.), &c." (Blyth 1833).
(syn. Passerina Ϯ Painted Bunting P. ciris) "GENUS 34. *FRINGILLA, L.  SUBGENUS 1. SPIZA, Nob.   163. Fringilla amœna, Nob.  ...  164. Fringilla cyanea, Wils.  ...  165. Fringilla ciris, Temm." (Bonaparte 1827); "12. Spiza, BP..  Ces Spiziens-Tanagroïdes qui également et surpassent même en beauté les Tangaras, par le Pape du moins, appelé pour cela Non-pareil, auquel se rattachent deux espèces du midi et de l'ouest des Etats-Unis, (Fringilla cyanea et amoena), et deux autres encore plus méridionales, (Spiza versicolor et leclancheri.)" (Bonaparte 1850).

Gr. σπιζα spiza  finch  < σπιζω spizō  to chirp.
● ex “Green Black-cap Fly-catcher” of Edwards 1743; probably the “Guitguit” of Hernandez 1651: “Avicula est minima, Regulo similis, viridi colore” (Chlorophanes).
● ex "Fringilla" of authors (see Spiza) and Fringilla coelebs Linnaeus, 1766 (syn. Fringilla coelebs).

americ / americana / americanum / americanus
Mod. L. Americanus  American, of the Americas.  Received opinion states that America was named after Amerigo Vespucci (d. 1512), a Florentine merchant who promoted and sailed on several voyages to the New World 1500-1502.  The name was first used, of South America, by the cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in 1507.  More recently Lloyd & Mitchinson 2009, have repeated the argument that the Americas were named after Richard Ameryk (d. 1503), a Welsh merchant and High Sheriff of Bristol who invested in John Cabot’s voyages of discovery 1497-1498.  Coues 1882, refers to a Nicaraguan Indian name Americ for a local range of mountains, forgetting, however, that Nicaragua was not subdued by the conquistadores until 1522.
● North America; ex “Black-cheeked Eagle” of Latham 1781, and Pennant 1787 (?syn. Aquila chrysaetos).
● America (= eastern USA); ex Anas clangula of A. Wilson, 1814, and “Golden-Eye Duck” of Audubon 1836 (subsp. Bucephala clangula).
● Cayenne; ex “Martin-pescheur du Brésil” of Brisson 1760, “Martin-pecheur vert et blanc de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 591, and “White and green Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (Chloroceryle).
● "52. CUCULUS.  ...  americanus.  7. C. cauda cuneiformi, corpore supra cinereo: subtus albo, maxilla inferiore lutea.  Cuculus carolinianus. Catesb. car. 9. t. 9.  Habitat in Carolina." (Linnaeus 1758) (Coccyzus). This name is the eighth toponym in avian nomenclature.
● North America; ex “Cinereous Coot” of Latham 1785 (Fulica).
● "76. ARDEA.  ...  americana.  5. A. vertice temporibusque nudis papillosis, fronte nucha remigibusque primariis nigris, corpore albo.  Grus americana alba. Catesb. carol. I. p. 75. t. 75. Edw. av. 132. t. 132.  Habitat in America septentrionali.  Caput subtus ad maxillam inferiorem rubrum est." (Linnaeus 1758) (Grus).
● Erroneous TL. North America (?= Cayenne); ex “Black-chested Eagle” of Pennant 1766 (?syn. Harpia harpyja).
● Cayenne; ex “Aigle d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 417 (Ibycter).
● Louisiana; ex “Pie-grièche de la Louisiane” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 397 (syn. Lanius ludovicianus).
● Cayenne; ex “Merula indica pectore cinnabarino” or “Jacapu” of Marcgrave 1648, “Red-breasted Indian Blackbird” of Willughby 1676, “Troupiale de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 236, fig. 2, and de Buffon 1770-1783, “Mocking bird of Guiana” of Bancroft 1769, and “Red-breasted Oriole” of Latham 1782 (syn. Leistes militaris).
● Paraguay; ex “Tordo degollado tercero” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 70 (syn. Leistes superciliaris).
● Louisiana and New York; ex “Canard Jensen de la Louisiane” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “American Wigeon” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Mareca).
● North America; ex Mergus merganser A. Wilson, 1814 (subsp. Mergus merganser).
● Erroneous inferred TL. America (= Île de France (= Mauritius) = Philippines); ex “Guespier de l’Île de France” and “Petit Guespier des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Merops).
● "74. MYCTERIA.  ...  americana.  1. MYCTERIA.  Jabiru-guacu. Marcgr. bras. 201. Pis. bras. 87. Raj. av. 96. Will. orn. 202. t. 47. f. 2. 4.  Habitat in America calidioreMagnitudo Ciconiæ, alba, remigibus rectricibusque nigro-purpurascentibus.  Conf. Grew. mus. t. 5. f. 1." (Linnaeus 1758) (Mycteria).
● Louisiana; ex “Gallinula martinica” of Ord 1825 (syn. Porphyrula martinica).
● North America; ex “Avosetta” of Dampier 1697, and “American Avoset” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Recurvirostra).
● "86. STRUTHIO.  ...  americanus.  3. S. digito postico rotundato mutico.  Struthio Camelus americanus. Raj. av. 36.  Nhanduguacu brasiliensibus. Marcgr. bras. 190. Pis. bras. 84.  Habitat in America australi." (Linnaeus 1758) (Rhea).
● South Carolina; ex “Parus Fringillago. Finch-Creeper” of Catesby 1731 (Setophaga).
● America (TL erroneously given as Europe); ex “Yellow-backed Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Setophaga americana).
● "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  ...  americanus.  2. C. narium tubulis eminentibus.  Caprimulgus s. Noctua sylvatica jamaicensis. Sloan. jam. 2. p. 298. t. 255. f. 1. Raj. av. 180.  Hirundo major subfusca miscella, macula alba sphærica in utraque ala. Brown. jam. 467.  Habitat in America calidiore." (Linnaeus 1758). This is the last avian name in the epochal tenth edition of Linnaeus (‡Siphonorhis).
● New York; ex “Black-throated Bunting” of Pennant 1785 (Spiza).
● Some part of America (= Cayenne); ex “Black-breasted Grosbeak” of Latham 1783 (Sporophila).
● Virginia (= Pennsylvania); ex “Urogallus minor. Cocq de bois d’Amérique”of Catesby 1731, and “Attagen americana” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Tympanuchus cupido).
● Río de La Plata; ex “Hirondelle à croupion roux et queue carrée” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Rufous-rumped Swallow” of Latham 1782 (unident.).