Eurasian Coot / Fulica atra

Eurasian Coot / Fulica atra

Eurasian Coot

SCI Name:  Fulica atra
Protonym:  Fulica atra Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.152
Category:  Gruiformes / Rallidae /
Taxonomy Code:  eurcoo
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality Sweden, ex ref. to Fn. Svec.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

FULICA
(Rallidae; Ϯ Common Coot F. atra) L. fulica, fuliga or fulix, fulicis coot; "82. FULICA.  Rostrum convexum: Mandibula superiore margine supra inferiorem fornicata; Mandibula inferior, pone apicem gibba.  Frons calva.  Pedes tetradactyli, sublobati." (Linnaeus 1758): ex "Fulica" of Belon 1555 and Gessner 1555; "Fulica Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 152. Type, by tautonymy, Fulica atra Linné (Fulica, prebinomial specific name in synonymy)." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 211). Linnaeus's Fulica comprised four species (F. atra, F. Chloropus, F. Porphyrio, F. spinosa).  The coots seem to have radiated around the world from their Neotropical origins, but the Common Coot ranges widely from Europe to Japan and New Zealand.
Var. Fulcia, Tulica.
Synon. Lophophalaris, Lupha, Lycornis, Lysca, Nesophalaris, Palaeolimnas, Paludiphilus, Phalaria.

fulica
L. fulica, fuliga or fulix, fulicis  coot.
● ex “Grébifoulque de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 893, and “Grèbe-foulque” of de Buffon 1770-1785 (Heliornis).
● See: fulca 

fusca
L. fuscus  dusky, black, brown. Despite its classical meaning this epithet is used in ornithology to indicate a very wide spectrum of colours from black, grey and brown to a range of dark tints including slate-blue and dusky-orange (see also fuscus).
ex “Héron brun de Cayenne” (= ☼) of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 858, and “Héron brun” of de Buffon 1770-1786 (syn. Agamia agami).
● ex “Gobe-mouche brun de la Martinique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 568, fig. 2 (Allenia).
● ex “Brown Sandpiper” of Pennant 1768, and Latham 1787 (syn. Calidris minuta).
● ex “Brown Tern” of Latham 1785 (syn. Chlidonias niger).
● ex “Promérops de la nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 638, “Promérops brun à ventre rayé” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Promérops brun de la nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1776, and “New Guinea brown Promerops” of Latham 1782 (syn. Epimachus fastuosus).
● ex “White-breasted Barbet” of Latham 1782 (Malacoptila).
● "61. ANAS.  ...  fusca.  5. A. nigricans, macula pone oculos lineaque alarum albis.  Anas corpore obscuro, macula alba pone oculos, lineaque alba. Fn. svec. 106. It. gotl. 215. 271.  Anas fera fusca. Jonst. av. t. 44.  Anas niger. Will. orn. 278. t. 10. Raj. av. 141.  Habitat in oceano Europæo.  Mas ad basin rostri gibbositate notatus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Melanitta).
● ex “Martin-pêcheur de la Nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 663 (= ♀), and “Great Brown Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (syn. Melidora macrorrhina).
● ex “Tangara brun d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 155, fig. 2 (syn. Paroaria gularis).
● ex “Coot-footed Tringa” of Edwards 1743-1751, “Phalaropus fuscus” of Brisson 1760, and “Brown Phalarope” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Phalaropus lobatus).
● ex “Brown Creeper from the South Seas” of Latham 1782 (syn. Phylidonyris undulata).
● ex “Golondrina parda” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 301 (subsp. Progne tapera).
● ex "Figuier étranger" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 58, fig. 3 (Setophaga).
● ex “Bouveron” of de Buffon 1770-1783: “J’appelle ainsi cet oiseau ... parce qu’il me paroît faire la nuance entre les bouvreuils [bullfinches] d’Europe et les bec-ronds [seedeaters] d’Amérique” (syn. Sporophila lineola).
● ex “Barge brune” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 875 (syn. Tringa erythropus).
● ex “Rasle brun des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Zapornia).
● ex “Tourterelle de la Caroline” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 175 (syn. Zenaida macroura carolinensis).
● "96. LOXIA.  ...  fusca.  25. L. fusca, subtus albida, remigibus a tertia ad nonam basi omnino albis. Chin. Lagerstr. 19.  Habitat in Benghala." (Linnaeus 1758) (unident.).
● ex “Figuier brun-olive” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Olive-brown Warbler” of Latham 1783, and Pennant 1785 (unident.).
● ex “Gobe-mouche brun de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 574, fig. 1 (unident.; has been linked with Cnemotriccus fuscatus and with Contopus cinereus).

atra
L. ater black, dark, dull, dusky, dead black (cf. niger shining black, glossy black, jet black).
● ex “Martinet à Croupion Blanc” of Levaillant 1807, pl. 244, fig. 1 (?syn. Apus caffer).
● ex “Lori noir de la Nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Black Lory” of Latham 1781 (Chalcopsitta).
● ex “Ardea nigra” of Brisson 1760, “Héron noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black Heron” of Latham 1785 (syn. Ciconia nigra).
● "82. FULICA.  ...  atra.  1. F. fronte calva, corpore nigro, digitis lobatis.  Fulica fronte calva æquali. Fn. svec. 130.  Fulica. Bell. av. 36. b. Gesn. av. 390. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 13. Will. orn. 239. t. 59. Raj. av. 116. Marsil. danub. 70. t. 33. Alb. av. I. p. 79. t. 83. Hasselq. act. ups. 1751. p. 22. itin. 262.  Habitat in Europa; hybernat in GalliaEdit Semina, Herbas; natat supraque aquam currit." (Linnaeus 1758) (Fulica).
● ex “Coucou noir de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 512 (Monasa).
● ex “Tordo grande” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 60 (syn. Scaphidura oryzivora).
● ex “Tangara à cravate noire de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 714, fig. 2, “Camail” or “Cravate” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black-faced Tanager” of Latham 1783 (syn. Schistochlamys melanopis).
● ex “Gobe-mouche de l’île de Bourbon” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 572, fig. 3 (syn. Setophaga ruticilla).
● ex “Petite Bergeronnette du cap de bonne espérance” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “African Wagtail” of Latham 1783 (unident.).
● ex “Dusky Fly-catcher” of Pennant 1785 (unident.).

SUBSPECIES

Eurasian Coot (atra)
SCI Name: Fulica atra atra
atra
L. ater black, dark, dull, dusky, dead black (cf. niger shining black, glossy black, jet black).
● ex “Martinet à Croupion Blanc” of Levaillant 1807, pl. 244, fig. 1 (?syn. Apus caffer).
● ex “Lori noir de la Nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Black Lory” of Latham 1781 (Chalcopsitta).
● ex “Ardea nigra” of Brisson 1760, “Héron noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black Heron” of Latham 1785 (syn. Ciconia nigra).
● "82. FULICA.  ...  atra.  1. F. fronte calva, corpore nigro, digitis lobatis.  Fulica fronte calva æquali. Fn. svec. 130.  Fulica. Bell. av. 36. b. Gesn. av. 390. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 13. Will. orn. 239. t. 59. Raj. av. 116. Marsil. danub. 70. t. 33. Alb. av. I. p. 79. t. 83. Hasselq. act. ups. 1751. p. 22. itin. 262.  Habitat in Europa; hybernat in GalliaEdit Semina, Herbas; natat supraque aquam currit." (Linnaeus 1758) (Fulica).
● ex “Coucou noir de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 512 (Monasa).
● ex “Tordo grande” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 60 (syn. Scaphidura oryzivora).
● ex “Tangara à cravate noire de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 714, fig. 2, “Camail” or “Cravate” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black-faced Tanager” of Latham 1783 (syn. Schistochlamys melanopis).
● ex “Gobe-mouche de l’île de Bourbon” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 572, fig. 3 (syn. Setophaga ruticilla).
● ex “Petite Bergeronnette du cap de bonne espérance” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “African Wagtail” of Latham 1783 (unident.).
● ex “Dusky Fly-catcher” of Pennant 1785 (unident.).

Eurasian Coot (lugubris)
SCI Name: Fulica atra lugubris
lugubris
L. lugubris  mournful, plaintive  < lugere  to mourn.
● ex “Merle brun du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 563, fig. 1 (unident.).

Eurasian Coot (novaeguineae)
SCI Name: Fulica atra novaeguineae
novaeguinae / novaeguineae / novaeguineensis
L. novus  new; Mod. L. Guineensis  Guinean  < Guinea  Guinea, West Africa; i.e. New Guinea (first named Nueva Guinea in 1545 by the Spanish explorer Ortíz de Retes, because aborigines in the Mamberano region reminded him of those he had encountered earlier in African Guinea).
● ex “Lori noir de la Nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Black Lory” of Latham 1781 (syn. Chalcopsitta atra).
● ex “Choucas de la Nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 269, and “New-Guinea Crow” of Latham 1781 (syn. Coracina striata).
 Erroneous TL. New Guinea (= New South Wales); ex “Grand Martin-pêcheur de la Nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1766, “who had received the specimen from Cook’s botanist, Joseph Banks, at Cape Town. Sonnerat had never travelled to either New Guinea or Australia” (Robin 2001) (Dacelo).
● ex “Crabier de la Nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 926, “Crabier noir” of de Buffon 1770-1786, and “New Guinea Heron” of Latham 1785 (syn. Egretta sacra).
● ex “Caille de la nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1776, and “New Guinea Quail” of Latham 1783 (unident.).

Eurasian Coot (australis)
SCI Name: Fulica atra australis
australe / australis
L. australis  southern  < auster, austri  south.
● Tierra del Fuego; ex “Thorn-tailed Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Aphrastura spinicauda).
● Cayenne; ex “Southern Sandpiper” of Latham 1785 (?syn. Calidris canutus).
● Erroneous TL "Friendly Islands" (= Tasmania); ex "South-Sea Raven" of Latham 1781 (syn. Corvus coronoides).
● Erroneous TL. New Guinea (= Luzon, Philippines); ex “Manikor de la Nouvelle Guinée” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (Dicaeum).
● Australia; ex “New Holland Snipe” of Latham 1801 (syn. Gallinago hardwickii).
● Australia; ex “Pacific Paroquet (var.)” of Phillip 1789 (syn. Glossopsitta concinna).
● Australia; ex “New Holland Pelican” of Latham 1824 (syn. Pelecanus conspicillatus).
● Australia; ex “Cold-river Goatsucker” of Latham 1823 (syn. Podargus strigoides).
● Australia; ex “New Holland Quail” of Latham 1802 (Synoicus).
● Tasmania; ex Brown MS (syn. Lathamus discolor).
● Dusky Sound, New Zealand (syn. Nestor meridionalis).
● Staten I., off Tierra del Fuego (= Isla de los Estados, Argentina); ex “Statenland Eagle” of Latham 1781 (Phalcoboenus).
● Christmas I.; ex "Southern Tern" of Latham 1785 (syn. Procelsterna caerulea) (so identified by Stresemann 1950).
● Kerguelen I.; ex “Southern Tern” of Latham 1785 (?syn. Sterna vittata).
● Madagascar; ex “Palumbus viridis Madagascariensis” of Brisson 1760 (Treron).
● Erroneous TL. Sandwich Is. (= Samoa); ex “Blue-crested Parrakeet” of Latham 1781 (Vini).
● Tierra del Fuego; ex “Rusty-collared Finch” of Latham 1783 (subsp. Zonotrichia capensis).