Eurasian Curlew / Numenius arquata

Eurasian Curlew / Numenius arquata

Eurasian Curlew

SCI Name:  Numenius arquata
Protonym:  Scolopax Arquata Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.145
Category:  Charadriiformes / Scolopacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  eurcur
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

NUMENIUS
(Scolopacidae; Ϯ Eurasian Curlew N. arquata) Gr. νουμηνιος noumēnios  bird mentioned by Hesychius, traditionally associated with the curlew by reason of its crescent-shaped bill  < νουμηνια noumēnia  new moon  < νεος neos  new; μηνη mēnē, μηνης mēnēs  moon (cf. L. numen, numinis  nodding with the head  < nuere  to nod, to consent); "Numenius. Genus 78.  ...  Genus Numenii ...  Rostrum deorsum arcuatum  ...  **1. LE COURLY.  ...  NUMENIUS" (Brisson 1760): based on "Numenius" and "Arquata" of Gessner 1555, and other authors, and Scolopax Arquata Linnaeus, 1758; "Numenius Brisson, Orn., 1760, 1, p. 48; 5, p. 311. Type, by tautonymy, Numenius Brisson = Scolopax arquata Linné." (Peters 1934, II, 260); "Numenius Brisson, Orn., 1, p. 48, 5, p. 311, 1760—type, by tautonymy, "Numenius" Brisson = Scolopax torquata [sic] Linnaeus." (Hellmayr & Conover, 1948, XIII, 90).
Var. Neomenius, Numerius, Numineus, Neumenius.
Synon. Arquata, Cracticornis, MesoscolopaxMicronumenius, Palnumenius, Phaeopus, Zarapita.

arquata
● L. arquatus or arcuatus  bow-shaped  < arquus or arcus  bow, rainbow (syn. Calidris ferruginea, Cichladusa, Erythropitta).
● Med. L. arquata curlew < L. arcuatus bow-shaped < arcus bow; “It is generally said ...to be derived from the bird’s bill being bent like a bow, arcus; but it more likely refers to arquatus morbus = the jaundice “when the skin turns to the yellow colour of the rainbow” in allusion to the legend about Charadrius, Galbula, Icterus, etc.” (BOU 1915); "77. SCOLOPAX.  ...  Arquata.  5. S. rostro rostro arcuato, pedibus cærulescentibus, alis nigris maculis niveis. Fn. svec. 139.  Numenius s. Arquata. Gesn. av. 222. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 21. Will. orn. 216. t. 54. f. 1. 2. Raj. av. 103. Alb. av. I. p. 75. t. 79. Mars. danub. . . t. 17.  Habitat in Europa." (Linnaeus 1758) (Numenius).

Arquata
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Numenius Eurasian Curlew N. arquata) Med. L. arquata  curlew  < L. arcuatus  bow-shaped  < arcus  bow; "ARQUATA cinerea. Flamant gris.  Il faut placer cet oiseau sous le genre d'Arquata avec Gesner un des plus sçavans hommes de son siécle, à qui l'histoire naturelle est si rédevable. Arquatam, dit-il, hanc avem latine vocare volui, quod rostrum ejus inflectatur instar arcus  Gesn. de avibus lib. 3. p. 196.  On donne à Cayenne le nom de Flamant à toutes ces especes d'Arquata; mais le véritable Flamant est le Phœnicopterus dont nous parlerons plus bas" (Barrère 1741); "2612. NUMENIUS, L. 1746.  Numenius, p., L. 1735.  Tantalus, Lacép. 1800-1.  Cractiornis, G. R. Gr. 1841.  Arquata, Barr. 1745.  G. of B. iii. p. 569. pl. 153; Reich. S. A. t. 14. f." (G. Gray 1871); "Arquata G. Gray, 1871, Hand-list Genera Species Birds, III, p. 42.  Type, by original designation and tautonymy, Arquata Barr., i.e. Scolopax arquata Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2021).
• (Numididae; syn. Numida Helmeted Guineafowl N. meleagris) L. arquatus  bow-shaped, curved  < arquus or arcus  bow, rainbow; "Als Sippe hieher: Perlhuhn (Arquata (Nob.) oder Numida Meleagris).  Schnabel kurz, dick; Scheitel mit Knochenhöcker oder Federbusch.  Füße unbefiedert, ungespornt. Schieferfarbig, mit weißen Fleckchen ganz besäet; Kopf und Halshaut blaulich.  In Afrika (Guinea) heerdenweis." (Gistel 1848); "Arquata Gistel, 1848, Naturgesch. Thierreichs für höhere Schulen, p. 92.  Alternative name for Numida Linnaeus, 1766." (JAJ 2020).

SUBSPECIES

Eurasian Curlew (arquata)
SCI Name: Numenius arquata arquata
arquata
● L. arquatus or arcuatus  bow-shaped  < arquus or arcus  bow, rainbow (syn. Calidris ferruginea, Cichladusa, Erythropitta).
● Med. L. arquata curlew < L. arcuatus bow-shaped < arcus bow; “It is generally said ...to be derived from the bird’s bill being bent like a bow, arcus; but it more likely refers to arquatus morbus = the jaundice “when the skin turns to the yellow colour of the rainbow” in allusion to the legend about Charadrius, Galbula, Icterus, etc.” (BOU 1915); "77. SCOLOPAX.  ...  Arquata.  5. S. rostro rostro arcuato, pedibus cærulescentibus, alis nigris maculis niveis. Fn. svec. 139.  Numenius s. Arquata. Gesn. av. 222. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 21. Will. orn. 216. t. 54. f. 1. 2. Raj. av. 103. Alb. av. I. p. 75. t. 79. Mars. danub. . . t. 17.  Habitat in Europa." (Linnaeus 1758) (Numenius).

Eurasian Curlew (orientalis)
SCI Name: Numenius arquata orientalis
orientale / orientalis
L. orientalis  eastern, oriental  < oriens, orientis  east.
Asia; ex “Anser moschoviticus” of Albin 1731-1738, and “Anser chinensis” of Linnaeus 1747 (syn. Anser cygnoides).
● India; ex Ardea antigone Linnaeus, 1758, “Grus orientalis” of Brisson 1760, and “Indian Crane” of Latham 1785 (syn. Antigone antigone).
 East Indies (= Seram and New Guinea); ex “Casoar des Indes orientales” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 313 (syn. Casuarius casuarius).
● India; ex “Eastern Parrot” of Latham 1781 (?syn. Eclectus roratus).
● East Indies (= Amboina); ex “Coucou noir des Indes” (= ♂) and “Coucou tacheté des Indes” (=♀) of Brisson 1760 (subsp. Eudynamys scolopaceus).
● East Indies (=Java); ex “Rollier des Indes” of Brisson 1760 (Eurystomus).
● East Indies; ex “Merula indica” of Brisson 1760, “Merle des Indes Orientales” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 273, fig. 2, and “Ash-rumped Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Lalage nigra).
● India; ex “Indian Bee-eater” and “Coromandel Bee-eater” of Latham 1782-1787 (Merops).
● Asia; ex “Onocrotalus” or “Pelecanus” of previous authors (syn. Pelecanus onocrotalus).
● "91. TETRAO.  ...  orientalis.  12. T. pedibus antice pilosis: abdomine gulaque atra, collari ferrugineo, cauda cuneiformi.  Tetrao orientalis. Hasselq. it. 278. n. 43.  Perdix damascena. Will. orn. 128.  Francolin. Tournef. it. I. p. 158. t. 158.  Habitat in Oriente." (Linnaeus 1758) (Pterocles).
● China; ex “Tourterelle brune de la Chine” of Sonnerat 1782, and “Chinese Turtle” of Latham 1783 (Streptopelia).
● China; ex “China Owl” of Latham 1801 (syn. Strix seloputo).