Eurasian Green Woodpecker / Picus viridis

Eurasian Green Woodpecker / Picus viridis

Eurasian Green Woodpecker

SCI Name:  Picus viridis
Protonym:  Picus viridis Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.113
Category:  Piciformes / Picidae /
Taxonomy Code:  eugwoo2
Type Locality:  Europe, = Sweden ex Fn. Suec.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

PICUS
(Picidae; Ϯ Eurasian Green Woodpecker P. viridis) L. picus  woodpecker (Roman myth. Picus, king of Latium who married the beauteous nymph and songstress Canens, and was changed into a woodpecker by the spiteful Circe, whose affections he had spurned); "54. PICUS.  Rostrum polyedrum, rectum: apice cuneato.  Nares pennis setaceis obtectæ.  Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.   ...   Lingua Picorum & Jyngis inseritur fronti. Intestina cæcis carent.   ...   Pici Larvas insectorum lignum intus rodentium rostro fecante, sono terrefaciente, auditu percipiente: lingua acuta hastata intranse extrahunt, de qua Act. angl. 350. p. 509." (Linnaeus 1758); “The type of this Linnean genus has been fixed on various species out of the thirteen originally contained in it. Gray (List Gen. Bds. 1840, p. 54) selected major, Hargitt (Cat. Bds. B. M. xviii. 1890, p. 518) martius; but Swainson (Zool. Illustr. 1st ser. i. 1820, pl. 14), who appears to have been the first author to designate the type, made it viridis, and this the Committee believe should be accepted.” (BOU 1915);"Picus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 112. Type, by subsequent designation, Picus viridis Linné. (Swainson, Zool. Illustr., 1, 1820, text to pl. 4.)" (Peters 1948, VI, 130). Linnaeus's Picus comprised thirteen species (P. martius, P. principalis, P. pileatus, P. hirundinaceus, P. erythrocephalus, P. carolinus, P. viridis, P. benghalensis, P. semirostris, P. major, P. medius, P. minor, P. tridactylus). 
Var. Pigus.
Synon. Callolophus, Calopicus, Chrysopterus, Cirropicus, Poliopicus.
● (syn. Dendrocopos Ϯ Great Spotted Woodpecker D. major) (see above).
● (syn. Dryocopus Ϯ Black Woodpecker D. martius) (see above).

picus
L. picus  woodpecker, a bird used in augury.
● ex “Talapiot de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 605, “Talapiot” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Climbing Oriole” of Latham 1782 (Dendroplex).
● ex “Piegrièche Rouge à Plastron Blanc” of Levaillant 1800, pl. 65 (artefact).

viridis
L. viridis  green  < virere  to be green.
● ex “Merle olive des grandes Indes” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 564, fig. 1 (syn. Acritillas indica).
● ex “Green Grakle” of Latham 1801 (syn. Ailuroedus crassirostris).
● ex “Porphyrio viridis” of Brisson 1760, “Poule-Sultane verte” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Green Gallinule” of Latham 1785 (?syn. Amaurornis akool).
● ex “Meunier de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 861 (syn. Amazona farinosa).
● ex “Grande pie-grièche verdâtre de Madagascar” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 374, and “Tcha-chert-bé” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (Artamella).
● ex “Olivert” of Levaillant 1803, pl. 125 (syn. Camaroptera brachyura).
● ex “Coucou verd d’Antigue” of Sonnerat 1776 (Centropus).
● ex “Tourterelle de Java” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 177 (syn. Chalcophaps indica).
● ex “Grimpereau verd de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 682, fig. 1 (= ♀) (syn. Chlorophanes spiza).
● ex “Grimpereau verd du cap de Bonne Espérance” of Sonnerat 1782 (syn. Cinnyris afer).
● ex “Habia verde” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 89 (Cyclarhis).
● ex “Yellow-brested Chat” of Catesby 1731, “Merula viridis carolinensis” of Brisson 1760, “Merle vert de la Caroline” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Chattering Fly-catcher” of Latham 17783, and Pennant 1785 (syn. Icteria virens).
● ex “Icterus minor viridis” of Brisson 1760, “Troupiale de Saint Domingue” or “Siffleur” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 236, fig. 1, and “Whistler-Oriole” of Latham 1782 (?syn. Icterus galbula).
● ex “Yellow-throated Oriole” (= ☼) of Pennant 1785 (?syn. Icterus galbula (see below)).
● ex “Gallinula brasiliensis” or “Jacana” of Willughby 1676 and Ray 1713, “Jacana” of Brisson 1760, “Jacana vert” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Green Jacana” of Latham 1785 (syn. Jacana spinosa).
● ex “Green Shrike” of Latham 1781 (syn. Leptopterus chabert).
● ex “Blue-green Paradise-bird” of Latham 1783 (syn. Manucodia chalybata).
 "57. MEROPS.  ...  viridis.  2. M. dorso ferrugineo, abdomine alisque viridibus, gula caudaque cæruleis.  Ispida viridis, supra ferruginea. Osb. iter. 96.  Merops viridis, supra ferruginea. Chin. lagerstr. 5.  Merops benghalensis. Alb. av. 3. p. 29. t. 30.  Merops minor, caudæ 2. pennis longioribus & tenuioribus. Edw. av. 183. t. 183.  Habitat in Java, Benghala." (Linnaeus 1758) (Merops).
● ex “Green Grakle” of Latham 1801 (syn. Oriolus sagittatus).
● ex “Caracterizado verde y corona negra” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 210 (Pachyramphus).
● "54. PICUS.  ...  viridis.  7. P. viridis, vertice coccineo. Fn. svec. 80.  Picus viridis. Gesn. av. 710. Aldr. ornith. l. 12. c. 34. Will. ornith. 93. t. 21. Raj. av. 42. Alb. av. I. p. 18. t. 18. Frisch. av. . . t. 35. f. 1.  Habitat in Europa." (Linnaeus 1758) (Picus).
● ex “Courly d’Italie” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 819, and “Courlis vert” of de Buffon 1770-1786 (syn. Plegadis falcinellus).
● ex “Jacana” of Marcgrave 1648, and “Petite Poule-Sultane” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Porphyrula martinica).
● ex “Cassique vert de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 328 (Psarocolius).
● ex “Yellow-throated Oriole” of Pennant 1785 (?syn. Pseudoleistes guirahuro (see above)).
● ex "Barbu de Mahé" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 870, "Barbu vert" of de Buffon 1770-1786, and "Green Barbet" of Latham 1782 (Psilopogon).
● "46. RAMPHASTOS.  ...  viridis.  1. R. viridis, abdomine flavo, uropygio rubro.  Tucana cajanensis viridis. Briss. av. 4. p. 423. t. 33. f. i.  Tucan pectore flavo. Edw. av. 253. t. 329.  Habitat in Cayana.." (Linnaeus 1766) (Pteroglossus).
● "104. COLUMBA.  ...  viridis.  23. C. ænea, corpore subtus purpuro-violaceo. Briss. av. 1. p. 152. t. 15. f. 2.  Habitat in Amboina.  Pedes rubent plumis semitecti. Br. Rostrum rubrum." (Linnaeus 1766) (Ptilinopus).
● ex “Malkoha Rouverdin” of Levaillant 1807, pl. 225 (syn. Rhamphococcyx curvirostris).
● ex “Green Partridge” of Latham 1783 (syn. Rollulus rouloul).
● ex “Râle de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 368; “The oldest name for this species is undoubtedly viridis of P. L. S. Müller, but I do not adopt it, as there is nothing green about the plumage of the bird” (Sharpe 1894) (to be fair to Statius Müller the plate by d’Aubenton does show a dark-olive-backed bird) (Rufirallus).
● ex "Pie-grièche Perrin" of Levaillant 1808: "Nous devons la connaissance de cette belle pie-grièche à M. Perrin, de Bordeaux" (Telophorus).
● ex “Gobe-mouche hupé du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 573, fig. 2 (Terpsiphone).
● ex “Hirondelle verte” of Temminck 1807 (Tersina).
● ex “Todier de Saint-Domingue” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 585, fig. 2 (syn. Todus subulatus).
● "61. TODUS.  ...  viridis.  1. T. viridis, pectore rubro.  Todus viridis, pectore rubra, rostro recto. Brown. jam. 476. Briss. av. 4. p. 528. t. 41. f. 2.  Rubecula viridis elegantissima. Sloan. jam. 2. p. 306. t.263. f. 1. Raj. av. 187. Edw. av. 121. t. 121.  Habitat in America.  Cauda rotundata." (Linnaeus 1766) (syn. Todus todus).
 "55. TROGON.  ...  viridis.  3. T. viridi aureus, subtus luteus, gula nigra.  Trogon cayanensis viridis. Briss. av. 4. p. 168. t. 17. f. 1.  β. Trogon cayanensis viridis, ventre candido. Briss. av. 4. p. 170.  Habitat in CayaniaFascia pectoralis viridi-aurea. An præcedentis varietas aut sexus?  Rectrices in hoc genere XII." (Linnaeus 1766) (Trogon).
● ex “Green-winged Hornbill” of Latham 1787 (unident.; but not a hornbill Bucerotidae).
● ex “Green Coly” of Latham 1787 (unident.; but probably not a mousebird Coliidae).
● ex “Green Wagtail” of Brown 1776 and Latham 1783 (unident.).
● ex “Green Thrush” of Latham 1783 (unident.).

SUBSPECIES

Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Eurasian)
SCI Name: Picus viridis viridis/karelini
PICUS
(Picidae; Ϯ Eurasian Green Woodpecker P. viridis) L. picus  woodpecker (Roman myth. Picus, king of Latium who married the beauteous nymph and songstress Canens, and was changed into a woodpecker by the spiteful Circe, whose affections he had spurned); "54. PICUS.  Rostrum polyedrum, rectum: apice cuneato.  Nares pennis setaceis obtectæ.  Lingua teres, lumbriciformis, longissima, mucronata, apice retrorsum aculeata setis.   ...   Lingua Picorum & Jyngis inseritur fronti. Intestina cæcis carent.   ...   Pici Larvas insectorum lignum intus rodentium rostro fecante, sono terrefaciente, auditu percipiente: lingua acuta hastata intranse extrahunt, de qua Act. angl. 350. p. 509." (Linnaeus 1758); “The type of this Linnean genus has been fixed on various species out of the thirteen originally contained in it. Gray (List Gen. Bds. 1840, p. 54) selected major, Hargitt (Cat. Bds. B. M. xviii. 1890, p. 518) martius; but Swainson (Zool. Illustr. 1st ser. i. 1820, pl. 14), who appears to have been the first author to designate the type, made it viridis, and this the Committee believe should be accepted.” (BOU 1915);"Picus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 112. Type, by subsequent designation, Picus viridis Linné. (Swainson, Zool. Illustr., 1, 1820, text to pl. 4.)" (Peters 1948, VI, 130). Linnaeus's Picus comprised thirteen species (P. martius, P. principalis, P. pileatus, P. hirundinaceus, P. erythrocephalus, P. carolinus, P. viridis, P. benghalensis, P. semirostris, P. major, P. medius, P. minor, P. tridactylus). 
Var. Pigus.
Synon. Callolophus, Calopicus, Chrysopterus, Cirropicus, Poliopicus.
● (syn. Dendrocopos Ϯ Great Spotted Woodpecker D. major) (see above).
● (syn. Dryocopus Ϯ Black Woodpecker D. martius) (see above).

Eurasian Green Woodpecker (Mesopotamian)
SCI Name: Picus viridis innominatus
innominata / innominatus
L. innominatus  un-named  < in-  not; nominatus  noted  < nominare  to name  < nomen, nominis  name.