Eurasian Woodcock / Scolopax rusticola

Eurasian Woodcock / Scolopax rusticola

Eurasian Woodcock

SCI Name:  Scolopax rusticola
Protonym:  Scolopax Rusticola Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.146
Category:  Charadriiformes / Scolopacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  eurwoo
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

SCOLOPAX
(Scolopacidae; Ϯ Eurasian Woodcock S. rusticola) L. scolopax, scolopacis  snipe, woodcock  < Gr. σκολοπαξ skolopax, σκολοπακος skolopakos  woodcock  < ασκαλωπας askalōpas or ασκαλοπας askalopas  woodcock; "77. SCOLOPAX.  Rostrum teretiusculum, obtusum, capite longius.  Pedes tetradactyli: postico pluribus articulis insistente.   ...   Species Scolopacum, Tringarum &c. difficillime distinguuntur, ætate sexuque mutabiles, colore parum distinctæ; quæ pedibus sunt rubris a reliquis probe observandæ, cum pedes non varient.   ...   Scolopaces digitis quatuor insistunt, per paludes vadant. Tringæ per campos littoraque currunt vix digito postico insistentes, uti rite Cel. Kleynius notavit." (Linnaeus 1758); "Scolopax Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 145. Type, by tautonymy, Scolopax rusticola Linné (Scolopax, prebinomial specific name in synonymy)." (Peters 1934, II, 278). Linnaeus's Scolopax comprised fourteen species (S. rubra, S. alba, S. fusca, S. Totanus, S. Arquata, S. Phæopus, S. Rusticola, S. Fedoa, S. Glottis, S. Limosa, S. Gallinago, S. lapponica, S. Ægocephala, S. Hæmatica). Until the early 1800s Scolopax was used in a very broad sense, and included various snipe, sandpipers, godwits and curlew.
Var. Scopolax, Soclopax, Siolopax.
Synon. Microptera, Neoscolopax, Parascolopax, Philohela, Rubicola, Rusticola.

scolopax
L. scolopax, scolopacis  woodcock, snipe (e.g. barred, striped)  < Gr. σκολοπαξ skolopax, σκολοπακος skolopakos  woodcock  < ασκαλωπας askalōpas or ασκαλοπας askalopas  woodcock (syn. Burhinus oedicnemus).

rusticola
L. rusticula  gamebird mentioned by Pliny and Valerius Martialis, identified by some authors as the “heathcock” or grouse; "77. SCOLOPAX.  ...  Rusticola.  7. S. rostro recto lævi, pedibus cinereis, femoribus tectis, fascia frontis nigra.  N. rostri apice lævi, capite linea utrinque nigra, rectricibus nigris apice albis. Fn. svec. 141.  Scolopax s. Perdix rustica. Gesn. av. 503.  Scolopax. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 51. Will. orn. 213. Raj. av. 104. n. 1. Alb. av. I. p. 67. t. 70.  Habitat in Europa.  Noctu volitat reditque iterato eadem via aërea." (Linnaeus 1758) (Scolopax).

Rusticola
L. rusticula  unknown gamebird.
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Limosa Black-tailed Godwit L. limosa) "28 - Rusticola Grutto, - Limosa Melanura." (Houttuyn in Nozemann 1770); "Rusticola Houttuyn, 1770, Nederlandsche Vogelen, pt. 1, pl.  Type, by monotypy, "Grutto" = Scolopax limosa Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2021).
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Scolopax Eurasian Woodcock S. rusticola) "215. BÉCASSE, RusticolaScolopax. Linn. Gm. Lath.  Bec plus long que la tête, droit, à pointe arrondie, ridée latéralement (chez l'oiseau mort); mandibule supérieure sillonnée sur les côtés, munie d'un bourrelet interne à l'extrémité; l'inférieure tronquée et creusée à la pointe. — Jambes emplumées jusqu'au genou. — Doigts totalement séparés; pouce ne portant à terre que sur le bout.   Esp. Bécasse, Buff." (Vieillot 1816) (cf. specific name Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus, 1758); "Rusticola Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 56 (not of Houttuyn, 1770).  Type, by monotypy and tautonymy, "Bécasse, Buff." = Scolopax rusticola Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2020).
Var. Rusticolar, Busticola.
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Scolopax  American Woodcock S. minor) "Gen. 250.  RUSTICOLA, (Vieill.) Nob.  (Microptera, Nutt.)   346. RUSTICOLA MINOR, Vieill.  (Scolopax minor, Gm.) Aud. pl. 248.  America generally." (Bonaparte 1838); "4. Rusticola, Nob. (Microptera, Nuttal) che ha piedi brevi, non multo robusti, con tibie interamente vestite, le dita tutte libere, l'unghia del pollice ottusa, appena eccedente: ali brevi, rotondate, con le tre prime remiganti subeguali, strettissime, la quarta e la quinta essendo le più lunghe; dodici timoniere. Capo rotondetto: occhi retroposti. La femmina è molto maggiore del maschio: i giovani non differiscono punto dagli adulti: non cangiano colla muta i colori, che sono un mischio di nero, rufo e cenerizio. Suo tipo è la Scolopax minor, Gm. degli Stati Uniti, vera Beccaccia." (Bonaparte, 1839, Iconografia Fauna Italica, I, fasc. 25, sig. 127, p.[2] text to plate 'Gallinago brehmi.'); "Rusticola Bonaparte, 1838, Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America, p. 52 (not of Vieillot, 1816).  New name for Microptera Nuttall, 1834, preoccupied by Microptera Gravenhorst, 1802 (Coleoptera)." (JAJ 2021).