Hazel Grouse / Tetrastes bonasia

Hazel Grouse / Tetrastes bonasia

Hazel Grouse

SCI Name:  Tetrastes bonasia
Protonym:  Tetrao Bonasia Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.160
Category:  Galliformes / Phasianidae /
Taxonomy Code:  hazgro1
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locaUty, Sweden ex Fn. Svec.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

TETRASTES
(Phasianidae; Ϯ Hazel Grouse T. bonasia) Genus Tetrao Linnaeus, 1758, grouse (cf. Gr. τετρας tetras  bird mentioned by Symmachus, variant or error for τετραξ tetrax, τετραγος tetragos); Gr. -αστης -astēs  agent; "GEN. 82.  TETRASTES.  277. T. BONASIA L. — Tetrao Bonasia L. S. XII. p. 275. n. 9. — Lagopus Bonasia Klein Prodr. Av. p. 116. n. 3. — Haselhuhn.  In den Waldungen der nördlichen und gebirgigen Gegenden Europa's und Sibiriens bis jenseits der Lena.  ...  Der Lauf in der obern Hälfte befiedert, in der untern nackt, und vorn mit 2 vertikalen Schilderreihen besetzt; Zehen mit umfassenden Tafeln; der Schwanz 16federig, abgerundet." (Keyserling & Blasius 1840); "Tetrastes Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelth. Eur., 1840, p. lxiv, 109, 299. Type, by monotypy, Tetrao bonasia Linné." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 37).

bonasia
● Olson in Ripley 1977, wrote of the extinct Red Rail, “Here bonasia is evidently intended to refer to Tetrastes bonasia, the Eurasian Hazel Hen, since in early accounts the Mauritian rail was referred to by vernacular names [e.g. “Gellinote”] elsewhere applied to the grouse. The derivation of bonasia itself is uncertain and more than one interpretation has been offered, both for this word and for Bonasa...The most common explanation is that these words are derived from Greek bonasos, Latin bonasus (a bull) ...Choate (1973) has proposed that Bonasa may be derived from Latin bonum (good) and assum (a roast). Mr Farrand offers two additional suggestions. The first is that the original authors did intend an allusion to Greek bonasos, but that they meant to suggest the birds’ timidity, since the Greek word refers specifically to a mythical bull... whose horns were unfit for fighting and thus was obliged to save itself by fleeing ignominiously. Conversely, he suggests the possibility that the allusion may be to the well-known tameness of certain grouse, the words Bonasa and bonasia being latinized forms of French bonasse (simple-minded or good-natured)” (‡Aphanapteryx).
 Mod. L. bonasa or bonasia  Hazel Hen  < Italian name Bonasia for the Hazel Hen  < L. bonasus  type of maned bull  < Gr. βονασος bonasos  bison, bull, aurochs; "91. TETRAO.  ...  Bonasia.  7. T. pedibus hirsutis, rectricibus cinereis punctis nigris fascia nigra: exceptis intermediis duabus. Fn. svec. 170.  Gallina corylorum. Gesn. av. 229. Aldr. orn. l. 13. c. 11. Will. orn. 126. t. 21. Raj. av. 55.  Habitat in Europæ CoryletisFistula dulce canit volucrem dum decipit auceps." (Linnaeus 1758); "TETRAO BONASIA.  ...  Caro omnium sapidissima *).   *) Unde nomen Bonasia, quasi bona assa." (Nilsson 1817 (Björn Bergenholtz in litt.)) (Tetrastes).

Bonasia
• (Phasianidae; syn. Bonasa Ruffed Grouse B. umbellus) "SUBGENUS I BONASIA.   Tetrao, Vieill,  Coqs de bruyères, Cuv.  Bonasa, Stephens.  Lower portion of the tarsus, and toes naked.  Not varying much with the seasons.  Lives in dense forests of different kinds of trees.   205. TETRAO UMBELLUS, L.  ...  Ruffed Grous, Tetrao umbellus, Wils. Am. Orn. vi. p. 45. pl. 49. male." (Bonaparte 1828); "Bonasia Bonaparte, 1828, Annals Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, II, p. 126.  Type, by monotypy, Tetrao umbellus Linnaeus, 1766." (JAJ 2020).
• (Phasianidae; syn. Tetrastes  Hazel Hen T. bonasia) "III.  Bonasia, a new division, of which we propose Tetrao bonasia, L. as the type, in which only the upper portion of the tarsus is feathered." (Bonaparte 1828); "Bonasia Bonaparte, 1828, American Ornithology, III, p. 28.  Type, by original designation and tautonymy, Tetrao bonasia Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2020).

SUBSPECIES

Hazel Grouse (styriacus)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia styriacus
styriaca / styriacus
Styria, a region, state and former duchy of south-eastern Austria.

Hazel Grouse (rhenanus)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia rhenanus
rhenana / rhenanus
L. Rhenanus  of the Rhine, Rhenish  < Rhenus  River Rhine.

Hazel Grouse (rupestris)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia rupestris
rupestris
Mod. L. rupestris  rock-dwelling, montane  < L. rupes, rupis  rock  < rumpere  to shatter.
● ex “Rock Grous” of Pennant 1784 (subsp. Lagopus muta).
● ex “Rocar” of Levaillant 1802, pl. 101 < French roc or rocher rock (Monticola).

Hazel Grouse (schiebeli)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia schiebeli
schiebeli
Prof. Guido Schiebel (1881-1956) Austrian zoologist (syn. Carduelis carduelis balcanica, syn. Cettia cetti, syn. Fringilla coelebs, syn. Passer italiae, syn. Poecile montanus, subsp. Tetrastes bonasia, syn. Turdus merula).

Hazel Grouse (volgensis)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia volgensis
volgae / volgensis
Volga River, Russia.

Hazel Grouse (bonasia)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia bonasia
bonasia
● Olson in Ripley 1977, wrote of the extinct Red Rail, “Here bonasia is evidently intended to refer to Tetrastes bonasia, the Eurasian Hazel Hen, since in early accounts the Mauritian rail was referred to by vernacular names [e.g. “Gellinote”] elsewhere applied to the grouse. The derivation of bonasia itself is uncertain and more than one interpretation has been offered, both for this word and for Bonasa...The most common explanation is that these words are derived from Greek bonasos, Latin bonasus (a bull) ...Choate (1973) has proposed that Bonasa may be derived from Latin bonum (good) and assum (a roast). Mr Farrand offers two additional suggestions. The first is that the original authors did intend an allusion to Greek bonasos, but that they meant to suggest the birds’ timidity, since the Greek word refers specifically to a mythical bull... whose horns were unfit for fighting and thus was obliged to save itself by fleeing ignominiously. Conversely, he suggests the possibility that the allusion may be to the well-known tameness of certain grouse, the words Bonasa and bonasia being latinized forms of French bonasse (simple-minded or good-natured)” (‡Aphanapteryx).
 Mod. L. bonasa or bonasia  Hazel Hen  < Italian name Bonasia for the Hazel Hen  < L. bonasus  type of maned bull  < Gr. βονασος bonasos  bison, bull, aurochs; "91. TETRAO.  ...  Bonasia.  7. T. pedibus hirsutis, rectricibus cinereis punctis nigris fascia nigra: exceptis intermediis duabus. Fn. svec. 170.  Gallina corylorum. Gesn. av. 229. Aldr. orn. l. 13. c. 11. Will. orn. 126. t. 21. Raj. av. 55.  Habitat in Europæ CoryletisFistula dulce canit volucrem dum decipit auceps." (Linnaeus 1758); "TETRAO BONASIA.  ...  Caro omnium sapidissima *).   *) Unde nomen Bonasia, quasi bona assa." (Nilsson 1817 (Björn Bergenholtz in litt.)) (Tetrastes).

Hazel Grouse (griseonota)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia griseonota
griseonota / griseonotus
Med. L. griseum grey; Gr. -νωτος -nōtos -backed < νωτον nōton back.

Hazel Grouse (sibiricus)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia sibiricus
sibirica / sibiricum / sibiricus
Mod. L. Sibiricus  Siberian  < Sibiria  Siberia, northern Asiatic Russia  < Sibir, a former Tartar khanate of western Siberia, west of the Yenisey.
● ex “Dun Fly-catcher” of Latham 1783, and Pennant 1785 (Muscicapa).
● ex “Siberian Titmouse” of Latham 1783 (syn. Poecile cinctus).

Hazel Grouse (kolymensis)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia kolymensis
kolymensis
Kolyma District, Yakutsk Province, eastern Siberia, Russia.

Hazel Grouse (amurensis)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia amurensis
amurensis
Amurland, Amur or Amuria, south-eastern Siberia.

Hazel Grouse (yamashinai)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia yamashinai
yamashinae / yamashinai
Yoshimaro Marquis Yamashina (1900-1989) Japanese ornithologist, founder of Yamashina Institute for Ornithology 1932 (‡Acrocephalus, syn. Bubo bubo kiautschensis, syn. Chalcophaps indica, syn. Dendrocopos leucotos subcirris, syn. Dryobates minor amurensis, syn. Sula leucogaster plotus, subsp. Tetrastes bonasia).

Hazel Grouse (vicinitas)
SCI Name: Tetrastes bonasia vicinitas
vicinitas
L. vicinitas  nearness, proximity  < vicinus  very near  < vicus  town district.