Hooded Crane / Grus monacha

Hooded Crane / Grus monacha

Hooded Crane

SCI Name:  Grus monacha
Protonym:  Grus monacha Pl.Col. livr.94 pl.555
Category:  Gruiformes / Gruidae /
Taxonomy Code:  hoocra1
Type Locality:  Hokkaido and Korea.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1835
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

GRUS
(Gruidae; Ϯ Common Crane G. grus) L. grus, gruis  crane; "**6. LA GRUE.  ...  GRUS" (Brisson 1760): based on "Grus" of Gessner 1555, and many other authors, and Ardea Grus Linnaeus, 1758; "GRUS CREPITANS SEU PSOPHIA LINNÆI.  AVES ab Ill. LINNÆO sub Ardearum nomine recensitæ, constantibus & evidentissimis characteribus in tria genera, ab antiquioribus jam olim Ornitholologis judiciose adoptata, distingui possunt; Ardearum nempe, Ciconiarum atque Gruum.  ...  GRUES denique, inter Ardeas & Otides quasi mediæ & ambiguæ, conveniunt inter se rostro cranium vix excedente, basi, ubi nares, canaliculato, extremitate convexiusculo, linguaque gallinacea; Pedes habent proceros, digitos mediocres, posticum parvum & a terra remotiusculum, plicam inter anticorum tantum externum & medium, unguesque tandem mediocres, acutos. Capite gaudent plumosiore, quam Ardeæ, atque sæpe vario ornatu insigni; femora quoque minus alte denudata sistunt." (Pallas 1766); “The earliest use of Grus as a genus is undoubtedly that of Pallas  ...  A reference to this work will show that it was proposed for the bird known as Psophia crepitans Linn., and therefore Grus as a genus can only be regarded as a synonym of Psophia proposed by Linnaeus, also in 1766. Gray recognised this fact in 1841, and proposed Megalornis for the Common Crane, Ardea grus Linn. As, however, the generic name Grus has always been associated with the Common Crane since the time of Bechstein in 1793, and the use of Megalornis has only recently been brought to the notice of present day ornithologists (cf. Iredale, Nov. Zool. xvii.1910, p. 502), the Committee have decided to retain Grus as a “nomen conservandum” ” (BOU 1915) (In fact, G. Gray 1841, considered Grus Moehring, 1752, to be preoccupied by Grus Linnaeus, 1735 (= Balearica Brisson, 1760), both pre-Linnaean); "Grus Pallas, Misc. Zool., 1766, p. 66. Type, by tautonymy, Ardea grus Linné....  1 The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has ruled (opinion no. 103) that Grus Pallas, refers to all the species placed in the section Grues of the 10th ed. of Linné's Syst. Nat., not to Psophia crepitans Linné alone. The determination of Ardea grus as the genotype of Grus Pallas, precludes the further use of the name Megalornis G. R. Gray (List Gen. Bds., ed. 2, 1841, p. 85)." (Peters 1934, II, 150); "GRUS Brisson, 1760  F — "Grus" Brisson; type by tautonymy = Ardea grus Linnaeus, 1758 5  ...  5 For change from Pallas to Brisson see Direction 55 (I.C.Z.N., 1956)" (Dickinson and Remsen (eds.), H. & M. Complete Checklist, 4th ed., 2013, 1 (Non-passerines), p. 165)."
Synon. Limnogeranus, Mathewsena, Mathewsia, Megalornis, Pseudogeranus.

grus
L. grus, gruis  crane; "76. ARDEA.  ...  Grus.  4. A. vertice nudo papilloso, fronte remigibus occipiteque nigris, corpore cinereo.  Ardea vertice papilloso. Fn. svec. 131.  Grus. Bell. av. 41. 6. Gesn. av. 529. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 5. Jonst. av. 166. t. 44. Will. orn. 200. t. 48. Raj. av. 95. Mars. danub. 5. p. 6. t. 1. Alb. av. 2. p. 60. t. 65.  Habitat in Europæ, Africæ campis subhumidisTrans pontum fugat & terris immittit apricis. Virg." (Linnaeus 1758) (Grus).

monacha
Late. L. monacha  nun (i.e. hooded)  < Gr. μοναχη monakhē  nun  < μονος monos  solitary  < μοναχοω monakhoō  to make single.
● ex “Moloxita” or “Réligieuse d’Abissinie” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Nun Thrush” of Latham 1783 (Oriolus).

MONASA
(Bucconidae; Ϯ Black Nunbird M. atra) Gr. μονας monas, μοναδος monados  female hermit, nun  < μονος monos  solitary  < μοναχοω monakhoō  to make single; "35. MONASE, Monasa.  Cuculus, Gm.  Bucco, Lath.  Bec garni de soies à la base, plus long que la tête, comprimé par les côtés, entier; mandibules courbées en en base.  Esp. Coucou noir de Cayenne, Buff.   ...   Monasa [μονασης, qui solus vivit]." (Vieillot 1816); "Monasa Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, p. 27. Type, by monotypy, Coucou noir de Cayenne of Buffon = Cuculus ater Boddaert." (Peters 1948, VI, 21).
Var. Monassa, Monasta, Monacha, Monesa, Monaca.
Synon. Barbacou, Barbaculus, Monadon, Monastes, Scotocharis.

MONARCHA
(Monarchidae; Ϯ Black-faced Monarch M. melanopsis) L. monarcha  monarch  < Gr. μοναρχος monarkhos  monarch, sovereign, dictator (see Tyrannus); "Genus. MONARCHA.   Rostrum forte, subelongatum, basi latum, subdepressum; culmine carinato, apice arcuato; mandibula superiore emarginata; naribus basalibus, rotundis, setis plumulisque opertis; rictu vibrissis fortibus instructo.  Alæ mediocres, subrotundatæ; remige prima brevi, secunda duplo longiore, tertia et quinta æqualibus, quarta quæ est longissima, paulo breviori; cæteris gradatim breviscentibus: tertiæ ad sextam inclusam pogoniis externis paulatim in medio latioribus.  Cauda mediocris, æqualis.  Pedes mediocres, acrotarsiis scutellatis, paratarsiis integris.   The powerful construction of the bill of this group separates it at once from the other species of the Muscicapidæ, with which in the depression and breadth at the base of that member, the strength of the rictal bristles, and the general characters of the wings and legs, it otherwise accords. This strength of bill would incline us to place the bird among the Laniadæ, and in the subfamily of Tyrannina, Swains., of which it might thus be considered to form the Australian representative, did not the other characters of its structure evince a more predominant inclination to the Muscicapidæ than to the Tyranni. The group may, however, be considered to stand intermediately between the two families; and might perhaps be referred with equal propriety to either, according to the characters which each naturalist would select as most predominant, and most convenient to guide him in his subdivisions. The habits of the birds of this group, hitherto unknown, will have much influence in determining its exact station.    1. CARINATA.  ...  Muscipeta carinata.  Swains. Zool. Illust. pl. 147." (Vigors & Horsfield 1827); "Monarcha Vigors and Horsfield, 1827, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, p. 254. Type, by monotypy, Muscipeta carinata Swainson, 1823 = Muscicapa melanopsis Vieillot, 1818." (Mayr in Peters 1986, XI, 500).
Var. Monacha, Monarches (Gr. μοναρχης monarkhēs monarch).
Synon. Bathmisyrma, Monarcharses, Neopomarea.