Long-tailed Triller / Lalage leucopyga
Protonym: Symmorphus leucopygus Syn.BirdsAustr. pt4 App. p.3
Taxonomy: Passeriformes / Campephagidae / Lalage
Taxonomy Code: lottri1
Type Locality: 'New South Wales'', error for Norfolk I.
Publish Year: 1838
IUCN Status: Least Concern
(Campephagidae; Ϯ Pied Triller L. nigra) Gr. λαλαξ lalax, λαλαγος lalagos or λαλαγες lalages unidentified bird mentioned by Hesychius < λαλαζω lalazō to chirp or chirrup (cf. this name is also identified with a green tree frog); "IX. Fam. Myiotheridae. ... Lalage: Turdus orientalis Gm. enl. 273 fig. 2. u. s. w." (Boie 1826); "Lalage Boie, 1826, Isis, col. 973. Type, by monotypy, Turdus orientalis Gmelin = Turdus niger Forster." (Mayr in Peters 1960, IX, 196).
Synon. Acanthinotus, Coquus, Diaphoropterus, Erucivora, Karua, Oscarornis, Oxynotus, Perissolalage, Pseudolalage, Symmorphus.
Gr. λευκοπυγος leukopugos with white rear < λευκος leukos white;
-πυγος -pugos -rumped < πυγη pugē rump.
Long-tailed Triller (affinis)
SCI Name: Lalage leucopyga affinis
affinae / affine / affinis
L. adfinis or affinis related, allied, neighbourly < ad towards; finis end, boundary. Over 85 forms share these specific epithets, which indicate relationship or similarity (not necessarily to a currently recognised congeneric species). Some descriptions contain no information as to the supposed related species (e.g., Apus (cf. “neighbouring, in reference to its habit of br[eeding] in close association with man” (Hockey et al. 2005)), Certhia, Coracias), some have subsequently been identified as hybrids (e.g., Ramphocelus affinis Lesson, 1840 = R. dimidiatus x R. icteronotus), and a few refer to allied taxa I have yet to identify. A selection of further examples follows.
● "Calornis affinis, A. Hay. This differs from the Malayan C. cantor [=syn. Aplonis panayensis] in its larger size. ... C. affinis inhabits Tipperah, Arracan, Tenasserim (?), and the Nicobar Islands: while C. cantor is common at Malacca." (Blyth 1846) (subsp. Aplonis panayensis).
● "Sp. 13. Aegotheles affinis, nov. sp. ... Questa specie somiglia all' A. novae-hollandiae [= syn. A. cristatus] più che non a qualunque altra specie ... Pel colore della coda l' A. affinis somiglia all' A. bennettii, Salvad., ma ne differisce pel colore rossigno delle parti sopra indicate e per le piume del sottocoda senza macchie."(Salvadori 1875) (Aegotheles).
● "Spec. 1. Cinnyris affinis mihi. ... Chess Javanis. The general description of the Certhia olivacea, Linn. Syst. i. p. 185. 5, a native of Madagascar [= Zosterops olivaceus], applies to this bird; but our species exceeds the former three inches in length, and it wants the white orbits."(Horsfield 1822) (Arachnothera).
● "FULIGULA AFFINIS. Fu.—Precedenti [Fuligula Marilla = Aythya marila] similis, sed rostro breviore et ungue angustiore armato. AMERICAN SCAUP. ... The above bird may be distinguished from the preceding in both sexes by the following comparative marks: total length less; bill shorter and not so broad; nail much narrower, and not so much rounded at its sides; tarsi shorter. ... This is another bird of which we have entertained considerable doubts as to the propriety of making into a species; the above distinctions, however, appear through all the specimens we have examined to be constant." (Eyton 1838) (Aythya).
● "Batrachostomus affinis, nobis, n. s. Very similar to B. javensis, in the plumage figured by Dr. Horsfield (and which is considered to be the young dress of Podargus auritus, Tem.), but smaller, with no white spots on the wing, nor pale spot-like bands on the tertiaries and caudal feathers; but the former are uniformly freckled over with dusky specks, and the latter present a series of obscure freckled bands, seen best at a little distance: throat and breast plain rufous, with a few white feathers having a subterminal dusky border on the fore-neck and sides of the breast only. Rest as in B. javensis, juv. ... This is the small Malayan species which I formerly considered might be Podargus stellatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 43: but it does not accord with the description of that species, and its dimensions are rather superior." (Blyth 1847) (Batrachostomus).
● "*CLIMACTERIS ERYTHROPS, Gould, var.? (CL. AFFINIS, nobis, n. s. ?) Like CL. ERYTHROPS, but with slight pale non-rufous supercilia, which are not conspicuously noticeable: throat dull whitish, passing to greyish on breast, and a small central ferruginous spot at base of throat: ear-coverts pale, streaked. Specimen doubtless of the female sex." (Blyth 1863) (Climacteris).
● "Another small dark Collocalia is common. Col. Tytler has no specimens of C. linchi (C. fuciphaga, auct.) with which to compare his specimens, but from recollection thinks his bird is distinct. He therefore provisionally calls it 15. COLLOCALIA AFFINIS, Tytler, sp. nov. ? Small Edible-nest Swiftlet. ... The nest of this species in Col. Tytler's collection resembles that of C. nidifica [= syn. Aerodramus fuciphagus inexpectatus], but is considerably smaller and perhaps whiter, on which account it is more valued by the Burmese and others, who collect both kinds for the Chinese and Penang markets." (Beavan 1867) (subsp. Collocalia esculenta).
● "MYIOLESTES AFFINIS, G. R. Gr. It is like the Myiolestes aruensis [= subsp. Colluricincla megarhyncha] on the upper surface, but the head has a slight tinge of grey; beneath, the body pale yellowish fuscous; throat slightly varied with white. It is rather smaller in its general measurements. Hab. Gagie." (G. Gray 1862) (subsp. Colluricincla megarhyncha).
● "1) Die verwandte Krähe, Corvus affinis, Br. Größe und Gestalt unserer Rabenkrähe mit einem Kolkraben-gefieder. Ich bin überzeugt, die gerupften australischen Vögel dieser Art werde man von unsern gerupften Rabenkräben nicht unterscheiden können." (Brehm 1845) (syn. Corvus coronoides).
● "Cyanocorax affinis. ... So sehr diese Art der vorhergehenden [Cyanocorax Diesingii = subsp. C. chrysops] gleicht, so unterscheidet sie sich doch sogleich durch ihre bedeutendere Grösse, durch breiteren, weniger zusammengedrückten Schnabel, weniger reiche Kopffedern und durch in manchen Punkten abweichende Färbung." (von Pelzeln 1856) (Cyanocorax).
● "Cymbirhynchus was separated by Mr. Vigors on account of the forward position of the nostrils and some other particulars; and Mr. Swainson lays much stress upon the vertical depth of its bill, which certainly is a marked feature in the common Malayan and Tenasserim species (C. nasutus) [= syn. C. macrorhynchos]; but there is a very closely allied species in Arracan, which, until I had obtained a good series of both, I declined to venture on distinguishing, but which I shall now designate C. affinis, nobis." (Blyth 1846) (Cymbirhynchus).
● "H. AFFINIS G. R. Gray. Mas. Præcedenti [Hapalophus Cubla = Dryoscopus cubla] similis, sed rostro capitis fere longitudine; alarum tectricibus concoloribus; caudæ plumis remigibusque leviter albomarginatis." (G. Gray 1837) (subsp. Dryoscopus cubla).
● "Emberiza xanthogastra P. Würt., Icon. No. 36. halte ich für ein intensiv gefärbtes Exemplar der Fringillaria flavigastra. Hierher gehören auch Megalotis quinquevittatus, Emberiza albicollis und E. affinis der Sammlung von Mergentheim. E. albicollis zeigt ein deutliches weisses Hinterhalsband; bei E. affinis fehlen die weissen Flügelbinden." (von Heuglin 1867) (Emberiza).
● "9. Tyrannula affinis. ... Maritime parts of Mexico. 10. Tyrannula obscura. Muscicapa querulæ? [= syn. Contopus virens] Vieil. Ois. de l'Am. pl. 39. ... Mexico. Rather larger than the last." (Swainson 1827) (Empidonax).
● "9º Tanagra (aglaia) diaconus, Less. [= syn. Tangara episcopus cana] ... Hab. Realejo. 10º Tanagra (Euphonia) affinis, Less. ... Hab. Realejo." (Lesson 1842) (Euphonia).
● "6. Geococcyx affinis, m. Differt a G. viatico, Licht [= Cuculus viaticus = syn. G. californianus]. cui primo adspectu simillimus 1. Plumis corporis superioris et rectricibus intermediis omnino magis cupreo-brunneis ... 2. Corpore subtus toto fulvescente-ochraceo, pectore maculis nonnullis longitudinalibus nigris sparsim notato ... 3. Statura minore; rostro et tarsis multo brevioribus, cauda pro mole longiore." (Hartlaub 1844) (syn. Geococcyx velox).
● "206. — Eriocnemis affinis ELLIOT. TACZ., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 39." (Taczanowski 1884); "Perhaps a lapsus for assimilis but description based on specimens collected in 1880 at Ray-Urmaña, Chirimoto, by Stolzmann; one of these same specimens served as the type of domaniewskii. In spite of the similarity in meaning affinis and assimilis are different words." (Peters 1968, V, 113) (subsp. Haplophaedia assimilis).
● "1. HEMIGNATHUS AFFINIS, sp. n. This bird is very closely allied to H. hanapepe, of Kauai, but differs in having the head, throat, and upper breast more golden yellow, and the back, rump, and upper wing-coverts dull olive colour instead of greenish yellow. Moreover, in H. affinis the yellow of the head terminates abruptly at the occiput, while it gradually passes into the colour of the back in H. hanapepe. The anal region and under tail-coverts are yellowish green, whilst in H. hanapepe they are white." (Rothschild 1893) (‡Hemignathus).
● "Dendrocolaptes affinis, de La Fr. — Valde affinis Picolapti guttato Lessonii [= Picolaptes guttata = syn. Lepidocolaptes fuscus], ab illo differt hæc species, statura majore et præsertim cauda alisque longioribus, maculisque totis colli pectoris et abdominis stramineis distincte nigro limbatis, quasi oculatis, his in Picolapte guttato majoribus, albidioribus, minus distinctis, lateribus tantum fusco marginatis." (de La Fresnaye 1839) (Lepidocolaptes).
● "Trichastoma, Nobis; n.g. ... *Tr. rostratum, Nobis. ... *Tr. affine, Nobis. So like the other in plumage as to cause some doubt, on a first view, whether it be specifically distinct; but the much smaller size, and different colour, of the legs and feet, and also the much shorter bill, have decided me to adopt the present course with it. ... General colour rather paler than in the preceding, excepting on the head; the nape much paler; and rump inclining to fulvous more than rufous: tail and its coverts brighter rufous than in the other; and breast crossed with pale fuscous." (Blyth 1842) (Malacopteron).
● "7. Eidopsarus affinis. — Capite, genis, gulaque nigerrimis; corpore supra luteo-olivacea, albo griseoque tincto infra; collo et thorace albidis; alis et cauda brunneo griseis. Hab. Nova-Wallia meridionalis. 8. Meliphaga reticuloides [= syn. Melithreptus affinis].— Capite bruneo; corpore supra bruneo-olivaceo, sordide fusco, bruneo striato infra; alarum et caudæ pennis brunneis, luteo-olivaceo marginatis. Long. 5 poll. Hab. Nova-Wallia meridionalis." (Lesson 1839) (Melithreptus).
● "HESPERIPHONA AFFINIS, n. s.* ... *HESPERIPHONA AFFINIS, nobis. Nearly affined to H. ICTERIOIDES (Coccothraustes icterioides, Vigors) [= Mycerobas icterioides]. ... The adult male so nearly resembles that of H. ICTERIOIDES, that its distinctness would scarcely have been suspected, had it not been for the great difference of the other sex." (Blyth 1855) (Mycerobas).
● "42. Nilaus affinis. Bocage. N. indig. Caporo. Hesitámos por muito tempo em estabelecer uma especia nova n'um genero que é ha muito conhecido por ter uma só especie; porém a constancia com que se nos apresentam os exemplares de Caconda distinctos do N. brubru pela ausencia total de malhas ferruginosas nos lados do peito e por outras variantes de côres, anima-nos a separal-os especificamente d'este. ... 5. Nilaus affinis. Ad. N. brubru [= subsp. Nilaus afer] similis, sed diversus; superciliis albis brevioribus; gastraeo toto albo, maculis pectoralibus castaneis nullis; fascia alari alba vix rufescente tincta; rostro nigricante; pedibus ardesiacis; iride fusca." (Barboza du Bocage 1878) (subsp. Nilaus afer).
● "10. NINOX AFFINIS, Tytler, sp. nov.? Andaman Hawk-Owl. ... Closely allied to Ninox scutellatus (Raffles) [= N. scutulata] but very considerably smaller, and differing also in being much more rufous on the under parts, and generally darker above." (Beavan 1867) (Ninox).
● "Sp. 39. Melilestes affinis, nov. sp. Melilestes M. ILIOLOPHO simillimus, sed capite supra cinerascentiore, dorso olivaceo paullo obscuriore, collo antico magis cineraceo." (Salvadori 1876) (syn. Oedistoma iliolophus).
● "263. Oriolus viridis [= syn. Oriolus sagittatus] ... 264. Oriolus affinis, Gould. Inhabits the neighbourhood of Port Essington, and only differs from the preceding species in having a smaller body, a shorter wing, a much larger bill, and in the white spots at the tip of the lateral tail-feathers being much smaller in extent." (Gould 1848) (subsp. Oriolus sagittatus).
● "Penelopides affinis, sp. n. ♂. Like P. Panini, but differs by wanting the perpendicular grooves on the thick lateral plates of the maxilla, which are smooth, by the grooves at the base of the mandible not being recurved, but straight, by the whole bill being much less massive, by the abdominal region and under tail-coverts being of the same colour as the breast, and not rufous, by the upper tail-coverts being black, and not rufous, and by the rectrices having a black band at their insertion." (Tweeddale 1877) (Penelopides).
● "30. MOTACILLA OFFINIS. Olive Willow Wren, T. (Willow Wren? [= Phylloscopus trochilus]) 5½ inches. Male. Upper parts dark olivaceous ashy-brown. Beneath, brownish yellow ochre. Clear yellow streak over eye. Upper mandible dark, lower pale horn: legs horn, eyes hazle. Killed in high-timbered jungle, on the banks of a stream." (Tickell 1833) (Phylloscopus).
● "536. ABRORNIS AFFINIS, Hodgson. ... This species is closely allied to A. poliogenys [= Phylloscopus poliogenys (formerly Seicercus poliogenys)], but differs from it in having the lores, base of lower mandible, lower portion of the ear-coverts, chin and throat, the same bright yellow as the rest of the under-parts; the feathers of the crown are pale shafted, which does not appear in poliogenys" (Hodgson 1854) (syn. Phylloscopus intermedius (formerly Seicercus affinis)).
● "Barbatula affinis sp. n. B. uropygiali [= subsp. Pogoniulus pusillus] simillima sed uropygio sulphureo; abdomine albido; pectore stramineo lavato." (Reichenow 1879) (subsp. Pogoniulus pusillus).
● "Zosterornis affinis sp. nov. ... Specific characters.—Similar to Zosterornis nigrocapitata (Steere) but slightly larger; chestnut of chin and upper throat diffused and not forming a patch on each side." (McGregor 1907) (subsp. Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus).
● "3. Elaenea pagana Licht. ... 4. Elaenea affinis Lund. ... Dieser Vogel ist an seinem zur Hälfte blaßgelben und dann tief schwarzgefärbten Schwanz scharf von der vorigen, ähnlichen Art verschieden; er bewohnt die lichten Campos im Innern Brasiliens" (Burmeister 1856) (Suiriri).
● "Taccocua affinis, nobis. ... I find that the Sirkeer of the Rajmahl and Monghyr hills requires further to be distinguished from that of the Cawnpore district, higher up the Ganges in the WNW. direction. ... It combines the size of T. sirkee with the colouring of T. infuscata; but has the bill rather more abruptly curved over than in either, and coloured as in all its congeners." (Blyth 1846) (syn. Taccocua leschenaultii infuscata).
● "1. Tch. paradisi, (L.) [= Terpsiphone paradisi] ... 2. Tch. affinis, A. Hay, MS.: Malayan Tch. paradisi, auctorum; Muscipeta castanea (?), Temminck. In any state of plumage, this species may be distinguished from the last by having the crest never more than seven-eighths of an inch in length (generally less), and the feathers which compose the crest are broader and much more commingled into a uniform smooth surface than in the other. The middle tail-feathers of the male rarely, if ever, attain a foot in length; whereas in the Indian species, they often exceed fifteen inches; in form, too, they are very much narrower than in Tch. paradisi (vera)." (Blyth 1846) (Terpsiphone).
● "CRINON ANALOGUE (Criniger affinis). Femelle. Partie supérieure vert olivâtre, plumes de la tête hastées; nuque pourvue d'un petit nombre de soies très fines et peu longues ... Habite Warou (Ceram)." (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841) (Thapsinillas).
● "POGONORHYNCHUS AFFINIS, n. sp. In size and colouring this species resembles P. leucomelas, excepting that the entire forehead and crown are black as in P. melanocephalus [= Tricholaema melanocephala]. In the bill and rictal bristles it resembles P. leucomelas, but the tooth on the upper mandible is barely indicated and the culmen between the nostrils is not quite so wide." (Shelley 1880) (subsp. Tricholaema leucomelas).
● "15. G. variegatus; Cincl. variegatum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 55 [= Trochalopteron variegatum], and figured in Gould's Century, Pl. XVI. Nepâl. 16. G. affinis, Hodgson. M. S. Nearly allied both to the last, and (judging from description) to the next species. ... Inhabits Nepâl. 17. G. capistratus; Cincl. capistratum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 55 [= Heterophasia capistrata]. Himalaya." (Blyth 1843) (Trochalopteron).
● "Yarrell and others extend the range of S. flammea [= Tyto alba] to South Africa; but a Cape specimen we have is certainly distinct, and is Strix affinis, nobis (Strix flammea apud nos, J. A. S. xxix. 100). It is rather larger than Strix flammea, with the general colouring much deeper, the back being of a more prevalent and darker ashy, the lower parts more strongly fulvous, and especially the primaries and tail much more broadly and distinctly banded, the dark markings being greatly more developed than even in the true S. flammea of Europe and N. Africa." (Blyth 1862) (subsp. Tyto alba).
● "Catarractes affinis, sp. nov. A new species of Catarractes, somewhat larger than C. lomvia Linn., may be based upon a right humerus, which is entire, and in an excellent state of preservation. This specimen was referred to by the writer in the description of Catarractes antiquus, from the Tertiary of North Carolina, and the latter is evidently a nearly related species." (Marsh 1872) (‡Uria).
● "PICUS affinis, Golden-naped Woodpecker. ... ORNITHOLOGISTS have either entirely overlooked this bird, or have slightly noticed it as a variety of Picus icterocephalus [= syn. Piculus flavigula], the golden-headed Woodpecker, from which it is nevertheless quite distinct." (Swainson 1821) (Veniliornis).
● "ORTYGOMETRA AFFINIS. ... This species is most like R. palustris [= subsp. Zapornia pusilla] of Mr. Gould, but it has not any white spots on the primaries, and the bill appears to be rather longer." (J. Gray 1846) (subsp. Zapornia pusilla).
Long-tailed Triller (deficiens)
SCI Name: Lalage leucopyga deficiens
L. deficiens, deficientis wanting, failing, abandoning < deficere to abandon.
Long-tailed Triller (albiloris)
SCI Name: Lalage leucopyga albiloris
albilora / albiloris
L. albus white; Mod. L. loris lores < lorum lore < L. lorum, lori bridle.
Long-tailed Triller (simillima)
SCI Name: Lalage leucopyga simillima
simillima / simillimum / simillimus
L. simillimus very similar < super. similis similar.
● "Arachnothera simillima, Sp. Nov. Extremely like A. flavigaster, Eyton, but smaller, somewhat yellower above and below, with a much smaller bill and distinguished at once by the rami of the lower mandible not meeting to form the angle of the gonys till within 0·6 of the point. ... This bird may not be new, but I am unable to identify it; and I think it probable that owing to its extreme similarity to the common flavigaster it may hitherto have escaped observation." (Hume 1877) (syn. Arachnothera flavigaster).
● "75. Dicaeum geelvinkianum simillimum subsp. nov. Extremely similar to D. g. diversum R. & H. (NOV. ZOOL. 1903, p. 215), but differs by the deeper red colour of the crown, breast patch and rump. ... It is perhaps risky to describe a form which differs so little, but this form is interesting as standing in between rubrocoronatum and diversum, in having the deep red of the former and the more steel-blue (not purplish) edges of the latter, and its geographical position is equally intermediate." (Hartert 1930) (syn. Dicaeum geelvinkianum).
● "Sp. 134. Heterophasia simillima, nov. sp. ... Simillima H. PICOIDI (Hodgs.) nepalensi, sed paullo minor, subtus pallidior, abdomine et subcaudalibus sordide albidis, et speculo alari albo minore, diversa." (Salvadori 1879) (subsp. Heterophasia picaoides).
● "Rallus torquatus simillimus, subsp. nov. Description.—Male and female. Very similar to Rallus torquatus sulcirostris Wallace from Sula Mangoli and Taliaboe, but larger and slightly more rufous and a little darker on the upper parts. ... The difference in colour is very slight, and some specimens are scarcely different in this respect. I would not have given the Peling population a new name were it not an island race." (Neumann 1939) (syn. Hypotaenidia torquata).
● "30b. *Diaphoropterus naevius simillimus nov. Subsp. Verbreitung: Alle drei Loyalty-Inseln. ... ausser dem etwa kürzeren Schwanz mit der caledonischen Form übereinstimmend. Beim Weibchen, besonders bei dem von Maré, sind die weissen Säume der Primär- und namentlich der Sekundärschwingen wesentlich schmäler als beim caledonischen Vogel, ähnlich die hell rötlichbraunen des Weibchens von Lifou." (F. Sarasin 1913) (subsp. Lalage leucopygus).
● "454. Motacilla flava simillima subsp. nov. Budytes leucostriatus (non Homeyer!) amerikanischer Ornithologen. In Kamtschatka brütet eine Schafstelze, die der mitteleuropäischen M. f. flava so ähnlich ist, daß sie schwer zu unterscheiden ist und bisher von europäischen Ornithologen nicht davon unterschieden wurde" (Hartert 1905) (subsp. Motacilla tschutschensis).
● "There also we find a beautiful and apparently very common Pitta, closely assimilating in colour, but in colour alone, to the P. strepitans ... Having lately had a great number of specimens forwarded to me which all agree in being of a smaller size and in having the under surface of a deeper buff, I propose, notwithstanding the opinion given in my 'Handbook,' to characterize it as distinct, and at the same time to assign to it a name (simillima) which shall mark its affinity to the older known species. ... PITTA SIMILLIMA, Gould." (Gould 1868) (subsp. Pitta versicolor).
● "83.—T. simillimus.—New species.—Neilgherry black bird. This black bird, generally considered by residents on the Neilgherries to be identical with the European species, so closely resembles it, that I was unable to decide accurately from the descriptions I possess, til I procured some specimens from home of the British bird. It however differs invariably (besides in other points hereafter to be mentioned) in the colour of its legs, which are always yellow, whilst those of the T. merula are brown" (Jerdon 1839) (Turdus).
Long-tailed Triller (montrosieri)
SCI Name: Lalage leucopyga montrosieri
Revd. Père Jean Xavier Hyacinthe Montrouzier (1820-1897) French missionary to the Solomons, New Guinea and New Caledonia 1845-1897, naturalist (subsp. Lalage leucopyga).
Long-tailed Triller (leucopyga)
SCI Name: Lalage leucopyga leucopyga
Gr. λευκοπυγος leukopugos with white rear < λευκος leukos white;
-πυγος -pugos -rumped < πυγη pugē rump.
UPPERCASE: current genus
Uppercase first letter: generic synonym
● and ● See: generic homonyms
lowercase: species and subspecies
●: early names, variants, mispellings
†: type species
Gr.: ancient Greek
<: derived from
syn: synonym of
/: separates historical and modern geographic names
ex: based on
TL: type locality
OD: original diagnosis (genus) or original description (species)