Red-billed Tropicbird / Phaethon aethereus

Red-billed Tropicbird / Phaethon aethereus

Red-billed Tropicbird

SCI Name:  Phaethon aethereus
Protonym:  Phaëthon aethereus Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.134
Category:  Phaethontiformes / Phaethontidae /
Taxonomy Code:  rebtro
Type Locality:  Ascension Island.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

PHAETHON
(Phaethontidae; Ϯ Red-billed Tropicbird P. aethereus) Gr. φαεθων phaethōn  sun  < φαω phaō  to shine (Gr. myth. Phaëthon, the disobedient son of Phoebus or Sol, the Sun, and the Oceanid Clymene); “Linnaeus bestowed upon it the generic term  ...  in allusion to its attempts to follow the path of the sun” (Newton & Gadow 1896) (see Phaetusa); "67. PHAËTHON.  Rostrum cultratum, rectum, acuminatum. Fauce pone rostrum hiante.  Nares oblongæ, postice membrana semitectæ.  Digiti postici antrorsum versi.  ...  Habitat in Pelago inter tropicos." (Linnaeus 1758); "Phaëthon Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 134. Type, by subsequent designation, Phaëthon æthereus Linné (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 80.)" (Peters 1931, I, 77). Linnaeus's Phaethon comprised two species (P. æthereus, P. demersus).  
Var. PhactonPhaeton.
Synon. Leptophaethon, Lepturus, Phoenicurus, Scaeophaethon, Tropicophilus.

phaethon
Gr. φαεθων phaethōn  sun  < φαω phaō  to shine.

aethereus
L. aetherius  on high, of the air, heavenly  < aether, aetheris  upper air, heaven  < Gr. αιθηρ aithēr, αιθερος aitheros  ether, heaven.
● Epithet given to the Large-tailed Potoo because it is supposed to rise high in the air and hover like a falcon; “welch ich C. aethereus nannte, da er bis zu einer bedeutenden Höhe in die Luft steigt, und dort gleich einem Falken schwebend steht” (zu Wied-Neuwied 1820) (Nyctibius).
● “It is called the Tropic-bird because it is found about the Latitude of the Tropic circles, and no where else, so far as hath been by our English Travellers hitherto observed” (Ray 1678); "67. PHAËTHON.  ...  æthereus.  1. PH. rectricibus duabus longissimis, rostro serrato, digito postico adnato.  Avis tropicorum. Catesb. car. 3. p. 14. t. 14. Raj. av. 123. Will. orn. 250. t. 76. Edw. av. 149. t. 149. f. 1. Sloan. jam. I. p. 22. Kalm. iter. 2. p. 149. Osb. iter. 291.  Avis Rabos forcados. Aldr. orn. l. 20. p. 544.  Habitat in Pelago inter tropicos. Osbeck.  Magnitudo Anatis, alba supra lineis nigricantibus undulata tota; subtus immaculata. Fascia nigra per oculos. Rostrum sanguineum, compressum, rectius quam P. Piscatoris, retrorsum serratum. Pedes pallidi, extrorsum nigri, digito quarto etiam membrana affixo. Remiges omnes subtus albæ: primores supra latere exteriore nigræ; secundariæ supra linea longitudinali nigra. Rectrices albæ in cauda cuneiformi, versus apicem lineola subsagittata fusca; omnes supra rachi nivea." (Linnaeus 1758) (Phaethon).

SUBSPECIES

Red-billed Tropicbird (mesonauta)
SCI Name: Phaethon aethereus mesonauta
mesonauta
L. mesonauta  boatswain, seaman who ranked between the pilot and the rowers  < Gr. μεσοναυτης mesonautēs  amidships rower  < μεσος mesos  middle; ναυτης nautēs  sailor.

Red-billed Tropicbird (aethereus)
SCI Name: Phaethon aethereus aethereus
aethereus
L. aetherius  on high, of the air, heavenly  < aether, aetheris  upper air, heaven  < Gr. αιθηρ aithēr, αιθερος aitheros  ether, heaven.
● Epithet given to the Large-tailed Potoo because it is supposed to rise high in the air and hover like a falcon; “welch ich C. aethereus nannte, da er bis zu einer bedeutenden Höhe in die Luft steigt, und dort gleich einem Falken schwebend steht” (zu Wied-Neuwied 1820) (Nyctibius).
● “It is called the Tropic-bird because it is found about the Latitude of the Tropic circles, and no where else, so far as hath been by our English Travellers hitherto observed” (Ray 1678); "67. PHAËTHON.  ...  æthereus.  1. PH. rectricibus duabus longissimis, rostro serrato, digito postico adnato.  Avis tropicorum. Catesb. car. 3. p. 14. t. 14. Raj. av. 123. Will. orn. 250. t. 76. Edw. av. 149. t. 149. f. 1. Sloan. jam. I. p. 22. Kalm. iter. 2. p. 149. Osb. iter. 291.  Avis Rabos forcados. Aldr. orn. l. 20. p. 544.  Habitat in Pelago inter tropicos. Osbeck.  Magnitudo Anatis, alba supra lineis nigricantibus undulata tota; subtus immaculata. Fascia nigra per oculos. Rostrum sanguineum, compressum, rectius quam P. Piscatoris, retrorsum serratum. Pedes pallidi, extrorsum nigri, digito quarto etiam membrana affixo. Remiges omnes subtus albæ: primores supra latere exteriore nigræ; secundariæ supra linea longitudinali nigra. Rectrices albæ in cauda cuneiformi, versus apicem lineola subsagittata fusca; omnes supra rachi nivea." (Linnaeus 1758) (Phaethon).

Red-billed Tropicbird (indicus)
SCI Name: Phaethon aethereus indicus
indicus
L. Indicus  Indian  < India  India. In early ornithology the term Indiis was also applied to the East Indies and, less frequently, to the West Indies and the Guianas.
● India and Tibet; ex “Barred-headed Goose” of Latham 1787 (Anser).
● Erroneous TL. India (= South Carolina) (syn. Baeolophus bicolor).
● Java; ex “Javan Hawk” of Latham 1781 (Butastur).
● ex “Indian Goatsucker” of Latham 1787 (Caprimulgus).
● ex “Drongolon” of Levaillant 1805, pl. 174, and “Long-tailed Shrike” of Latham 1822 (syn. Dicrurus macrocercus).
● ex "Psittaca indica coccinea” of Brisson, “Perruche des Indes orientales” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 143, “Lori Perruche violet et rouge” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Indian Lory” of Latham 1781 (syn. Eos histrio).
● ex “Lohaujung Heron” of Latham 1787 (syn. Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus).
● ex “Eastern black Cuckow” of Lastham 1787 (syn. Eudynamys scolopaceus).
● ex “Grand Vautour des Indes” of Sonnerat 1782 (Gyps).
● ex “Indian Curucui” of Latham 1787 (?syn. Harpactes fasciatus).
● ex “Merle des Indes orientales” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 273, fig. 2 (syn. Lalage nigra).
● ex “Smallest red and green Indian Paroquet” of Edwards 1743-1751, “Psittacula indica” of Brisson 1760, and “Red and green indian Parrot” of Latham 1781 (syn. Loriculus beryllinus).
● ex “Indian Jacana” of Latham 1787 (Metopidius).
● ex “Little Hawk Owl of Ceylon” of Pennant 1769, and “Indian Eared Owl” of Latham 1781 (syn. Otus bakkamoena).
● ex “Gélinote des Indes” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Indian Grous” of Latham 1783 (Pterocles).
● ex “White-chinned Bustard” of Latham 1783, and “Passarage Bustard” of Latham 1787 (Sypheotides).
● ex “Rossignol de muraille des Indes” of Sonnerat 1782 (Tarsiger).
● ex “Bécassine blanche des Indes” of Sonnerat 1776, and “White indian Snipe” of Latham 1785 (?Tringa erythropus).
● Erroneous TL. India (= Gamtoos River, Cape Province, South Africa); ex “Indian Coly” of Latham 1787 (Urocolius).
● ex “Vanneau armé des Indes” of de Buffon 1770-1785 (Vanellus).
● ex “Little redwinged Parrakeet” of Edwards 1758-1764, and “Psittaca indica” of Brisson 1760 (unident.).
● India; ex “Sicrin” of Levaillant 1801, pl. 82 (artefact).