Red-crowned Crane / Grus japonensis

Red-crowned Crane / Grus japonensis

Red-crowned Crane

SCI Name:  Grus japonensis
Protonym:  Ardea (Grus) Japonensis Natursyst.Suppl. Suppl. p.110
Category:  Gruiformes / Gruidae /
Taxonomy Code:  reccra1
Type Locality:  Japan.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1776
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

GRUS
(Gruidae; Ϯ Common Crane G. grus) L. grus, gruis  crane; "**6. LA GRUE.  ...  GRUS" (Brisson 1760): based on "Grus" of Gessner 1555, and many other authors, and Ardea Grus Linnaeus, 1758; "GRUS CREPITANS SEU PSOPHIA LINNÆI.  AVES ab Ill. LINNÆO sub Ardearum nomine recensitæ, constantibus & evidentissimis characteribus in tria genera, ab antiquioribus jam olim Ornitholologis judiciose adoptata, distingui possunt; Ardearum nempe, Ciconiarum atque Gruum.  ...  GRUES denique, inter Ardeas & Otides quasi mediæ & ambiguæ, conveniunt inter se rostro cranium vix excedente, basi, ubi nares, canaliculato, extremitate convexiusculo, linguaque gallinacea; Pedes habent proceros, digitos mediocres, posticum parvum & a terra remotiusculum, plicam inter anticorum tantum externum & medium, unguesque tandem mediocres, acutos. Capite gaudent plumosiore, quam Ardeæ, atque sæpe vario ornatu insigni; femora quoque minus alte denudata sistunt." (Pallas 1766); “The earliest use of Grus as a genus is undoubtedly that of Pallas  ...  A reference to this work will show that it was proposed for the bird known as Psophia crepitans Linn., and therefore Grus as a genus can only be regarded as a synonym of Psophia proposed by Linnaeus, also in 1766. Gray recognised this fact in 1841, and proposed Megalornis for the Common Crane, Ardea grus Linn. As, however, the generic name Grus has always been associated with the Common Crane since the time of Bechstein in 1793, and the use of Megalornis has only recently been brought to the notice of present day ornithologists (cf. Iredale, Nov. Zool. xvii.1910, p. 502), the Committee have decided to retain Grus as a “nomen conservandum” ” (BOU 1915) (In fact, G. Gray 1841, considered Grus Moehring, 1752, to be preoccupied by Grus Linnaeus, 1735 (= Balearica Brisson, 1760), both pre-Linnaean); "Grus Pallas, Misc. Zool., 1766, p. 66. Type, by tautonymy, Ardea grus Linné....  1 The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has ruled (opinion no. 103) that Grus Pallas, refers to all the species placed in the section Grues of the 10th ed. of Linné's Syst. Nat., not to Psophia crepitans Linné alone. The determination of Ardea grus as the genotype of Grus Pallas, precludes the further use of the name Megalornis G. R. Gray (List Gen. Bds., ed. 2, 1841, p. 85)." (Peters 1934, II, 150); "GRUS Brisson, 1760  F — "Grus" Brisson; type by tautonymy = Ardea grus Linnaeus, 1758 5  ...  5 For change from Pallas to Brisson see Direction 55 (I.C.Z.N., 1956)" (Dickinson and Remsen (eds.), H. & M. Complete Checklist, 4th ed., 2013, 1 (Non-passerines), p. 165)."
Synon. Limnogeranus, Mathewsena, Mathewsia, Megalornis, Pseudogeranus.

grus
L. grus, gruis  crane; "76. ARDEA.  ...  Grus.  4. A. vertice nudo papilloso, fronte remigibus occipiteque nigris, corpore cinereo.  Ardea vertice papilloso. Fn. svec. 131.  Grus. Bell. av. 41. 6. Gesn. av. 529. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 5. Jonst. av. 166. t. 44. Will. orn. 200. t. 48. Raj. av. 95. Mars. danub. 5. p. 6. t. 1. Alb. av. 2. p. 60. t. 65.  Habitat in Europæ, Africæ campis subhumidisTrans pontum fugat & terris immittit apricis. Virg." (Linnaeus 1758) (Grus).

japanensis / japanicus / japensis / japonensis / japonica / japonicum / japonicus
Japan (Mod. English names (early examples including Giapan) were derived from a Portuguese corruption of Malay Jepang and Chinese Zeppen, themselves local renderings of Nippon). The French equivalent is Japon.
● ex “Japonese Eagle” of Latham 1781 (subsp. Falco peregrinus).
● ex “Grue du Japon” of Brisson 1760 (Grus).
● Erroneous TL Japan (= New Guinea); ex “Psittacus erythrochlorus macrourus” of Aldrovandus 12599, and “Psittaca japonica” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Charmosyna papou).