Red Knot / Calidris canutus

Red Knot / Calidris canutus

Red Knot

SCI Name:  Calidris canutus
Protonym:  Tringa Canutus Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.149
Category:  Charadriiformes / Scolopacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  redkno
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

CALIDRIS
(Scolopacidae; Red Knot C. canutus) Specific name Tringa calidris J. Gmelin, 1789 (= syn. Calidris canutus); "Knüffel, Calidris.  Schnabel walzenförmig, gegen die Spitze hin dicker, glatt.  Mittlere und äußere Zehe etwas verbunden.   Tringa calidris, arenaria u.a." (Merrem 1804); "LES MAUBÈCHES. (CALIDRIS. Cuv.) (1)  ...  La grande Maubèche grise, Sandpiper et Canut, des Anglais. (Tringa grisea et Tr. Canutus. Gm.) Le plum. d'hiver, enl. 366. Edw. 276.  ...  (1) CALIDRIS, oiseau cendré et tacheté, fréquentant les rivières et les bois. Arist.  Brisson l'applique à l'une des espèces de ce genre" (Cuvier 1817); "Calidris Anonymous = Merrem, Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 2, no. 168, 8 June, 1804, col. 542.  Type, by tautonymy, Tringa calidris Gmelin = Tringa canutus Linné." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 280). 
Var. Calidridris, CallidrisCallydris, Calydris, Chalidris.   
Synon. Actia, Actodromas, Ancylocheilus, Anteliotringa, Aphriza, Arquatella, Canutus, Cinclus, Delopygia, Ereunetes, Erolia, Eurynorhynchus, Falcinellus, Hemipalama, Heteropoda, Heteropygia, Leimonites, Limicola, Limnocinclus, Machetes, Machophilus, Micropalama, Neopisobia, Pavia, Pavoncella, Pelidna, Philomachus, Pisobia, Platyrhamphus, Schoeniclus, Schoeniculus, Symphemia, Tryngites.
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Calidris  Sanderling C. alba) Specific name Charadrius calidris Linnaeus, 1766 (= syn. Calidris alba); "GENUS 89. CALIDRIS.  Arenaria Meyer, Bechstein (Sandläufer Germ.  Sanderling Angl.).   Rostrum mediocre, tenue, rectum, teretiusculum, maxillae dertro paullulum incrassato, in apicem deflexo.  Nares parvae, oblongo-ovales.  Alae volatiles.  Pedes grallarii, mediocres, cursorii, tridactyli, digitis ad basin usque fissis.  Acropodia scutulata.  Species: Charadrius Calidris Lin." (Illiger 1811); "Calidris ILLIGER, Prodromus, 1811, 249. Type, by [tautonymy and] monotypy, Charadrius calidris LINNÆUS = Tringa leucophæa PALLAS [= Trynga alba Pallas]." (AOU Check-List, ed. 3, 1910, 118); ""Tringa leucophaea" Anonymous (in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. d'Ois., p. 32, 1764—northern coast of Holland) is not binomial." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (3), p. 171, footnote).   
Synon. ArenariaArenula, Crocethia.

calidris
Gr. καλιδρις kalidris or σκαλιδρις skalidris  speckled, grey-coloured waterside bird mentioned by Aristotle, not further identified, but later conjectured to be a sandpiper or a wagtail.
● ex "Petite Maubèche grise" of Brisson 1760 (syn. Calidris alba).
● "Der südliche Schlammläufer.  Pelidna calidris, Br. (Tringa alpina, Linn.)" (Brehm 1831) (syn. Calidris alpina).
● ex “Rusticola sylvatica” of Gessner 1555, and Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and “Calidris” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Calidris canutus).
● ex “Totanus” of Belon 1555, and Brisson 1760, “Calidris Bellonii” of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and “Gallinula erythropus major” of Willughby 1676, Ray 1713, and Marsigli 1726 (syn. Tringa totanus).
● ex “American Nightingale” of Edwards 1750 (unident.).

canutus
According to legend King Canute (995-1035; reigned 1016-1035) of England, Denmark and Norway regarded the Red Knot, suitably fattened with white bread and milk, as a delicacy. Some authors have considered the epithet to be onomatopoeic, based on this wader's curt grunting calls; "78. TRINGA.  ...  Canutus.  10. T. rostro lævi, pedibus cinerascentibus, remigibus primoribus serratis.  Tringa cinerea, remigibus secundariis basi albis, rectricibus quatuor mediis immaculatis. Fn. svec. 150.  Canuti avis. Raj. av. 108.  Habitat in Europa." (Linnaeus 1758). This name is the second eponym in avian nomenclature (Calidris).

Canutus
(Scolopacidae; syn. Calidris Red Knot C. canutus) Specific name Tringa Canutus Linnaeus, 1758; "LE CANUT.  ... CANUTUS.  ...Les Anglois, & sur-tout ceux qui habitent la Province de Lincoln, l'appellent KNOT.  ... Cet Oiseau s'engraisse aisément, & est très-bon à manger" (Brisson 1760); "Knot.   Canutus.   Schnabel länglicht: kegelförmig, stumpf.   Knot der englischen Naturforscher." (Merrem 1804); "Strandläufer.  Canutus, Briss. (Tringa Islandica, Linn.)" (C. Brehm 1831); "Canutus Brehm, Handb. Naturg. Vög. Deuts., p. 653, 1831—type, by tautonymy, Tringa canutus Linnaeus." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (3), p. 166).
Var. Canus.

SUBSPECIES

Red Knot (canutus)
SCI Name: Calidris canutus canutus
canutus
According to legend King Canute (995-1035; reigned 1016-1035) of England, Denmark and Norway regarded the Red Knot, suitably fattened with white bread and milk, as a delicacy. Some authors have considered the epithet to be onomatopoeic, based on this wader's curt grunting calls; "78. TRINGA.  ...  Canutus.  10. T. rostro lævi, pedibus cinerascentibus, remigibus primoribus serratis.  Tringa cinerea, remigibus secundariis basi albis, rectricibus quatuor mediis immaculatis. Fn. svec. 150.  Canuti avis. Raj. av. 108.  Habitat in Europa." (Linnaeus 1758). This name is the second eponym in avian nomenclature (Calidris).

Red Knot (piersmai)
SCI Name: Calidris canutus piersmai
piersmai
Prof. Dr Theunis Piersma (b. 1958) Dutch ecologist, ornithologist (subsp. Calidris canutus).

Red Knot (rogersi)
SCI Name: Calidris canutus rogersi
rogersi
● Charles Henry Rogers (1888-1977) US ornithologist, conservationist, Curator of Princeton Mus. (subsp. Aerodramus brevirostris, subsp. Yuhina flavicollis).
● John Porter Rogers (1873-1941) Australian ornithologist, gold prospector, collector (syn. Anas gracilis, subsp. Anas superciliosa, subsp. Anthus novaeseelandiae, subsp. Butorides striata, subsp. Calidris canutus, syn. Calidris falcinellus, syn. Caprimulgus macrurus schlegelii, syn. Chalcites osculans, subsp. Chalcophaps indica, syn. Chlidonias hybrida javanicus, syn. Cincloramphus cruralis, syn. Circus assimilis, syn. Daphoenositta chrysoptera leucoptera, syn. Eulabeornis castaneoventris, syn. Gavicalis virescens forresti, subsp. Gerygone olivacea, syn. Limicola falcinellus sibirica, subsp. Malurus lamberti, syn. Myiagra nana, syn. Nettapus pulchellus, syn. Onychoprion anaethetus, syn. Pardalotus striatus substriatus, syn. Petrochelidon nigricans neglecta, syn. Plegadis falcinellus, subsp. Podargus papuensis, syn. Polytelis alexandrae, syn. Poodytes carteri, syn. Smicrornis brevirostris flavescens, syn. Sula leucogaster plotus, syn. Synoicus ypsilophorus australis).
● Revd. Henry Martyn Rogers (1879-1926) British missionary, resident chaplain on Tristan d’Acunha 1922-1925 (Atlantisia).
● H. E. Rogers (fl. 1928) British animal and bird dealer based in Liverpool (syn. Casuarius bennetti westermanni).
● Charles Gilbert Rogers (1864-1937) British civil administrator with Imperial Forestry Commission in India and Burma 1888-1919, naturalist, collector (subsp. Cyornis rubeculoides).
● Dr David Banks Rogers (1868-1954) US anthropologist, archaeologist (‡Phalacrocorax).

Red Knot (roselaari)
SCI Name: Calidris canutus roselaari
roselaari
Dr Cornelis (“Kees”) Simon Roselaar (b. 1947) Dutch ornithologist (subsp. Calidris canutus).

Red Knot (rufa)
SCI Name: Calidris canutus rufa
rufa
L. rufus  red, ruddy. In ornithology rufus, rufa and rufum cover a wide spectrum of colours from yellow, orange and brown to crimson, scarlet and purple.
● "91. TETRAO.  ...  rufus.  8. T. rostro pedibusque sanguineis, gula alba cincta fascia nigra albo-punctata.  Tetrao rectricibus cinereis: superiore medietate hinc inde rufis. Fn. svec. 171.  Perdix rufa s. major. Gesn. av. 682. Aldr. orn. l. 13. c. 18. Jonst. av. 68. t. 27. Will. orn. 118. t. 29. Raj. av. 57. Alb. av. I. p. 29. t. 29.  Habitat in Europa australiori.” (Linnaeus 1758) (Alectoris).
● ex “Anhinga roux” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (Anhinga).
● ex “Ferrugineous Duck” of Pennant 1776 (?syn. Aythya nyroca).
● ex “Pie rousse de la Chine” of Sonnerat 1782 (syn. Dendrocitta vagabunda).
ex “Aigrette rousse de la Louisiane” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 902 (syn. Egretta rufescens).
● ex “Hirondelle à ventre roux de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 724, fig. 1, and “Rufous-bellied Swallow” of Latham 1783 (syn. Hirundo erythrogaster).
● ex “Alouette noire de la Encenada” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 738, fig. 2, and “Alouette noire à dos fauve” of de Buffon 1770-1785 (Lessonia).
● ex “Lanius madagascariensis rufus” of Brisson 1760 (Schetba).
● ex “Fauvette rousse” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 581, fig. 1 (?syn. Sylvia communis).
● ex “Kleinste Grasmücke” of Frisch 1733, “Curruca rufa” of Brisson 1760, “Fauvette rousse” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 581, fig. 1, and de Buffon 1770-1786, and “Rufous Warbler” of Latham 1783 (?syn. Sylvia communis).
● ex “Schet Roux” of Levaillant 1805, pl. 147 (syn. Terpsiphone mutata).

Red Knot (islandica)
SCI Name: Calidris canutus islandica
islandica / islandicus / islandorum / islandus
Iceland  < Icelandic Ísland (cf. Med. L. Islandensis  Icelandic).
● ex “Hravn Oend” of O. F. Müller 1776, and “Iceland Duck” of Latham 1785 (Bucephala).
● ex “Gerfaut d’Islande” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Falco rusticolus).
● Balta Sound, Shetland Is. (syn. Larus glaucoides).