Red-throated Loon / Gavia stellata

Red-throated Loon / Gavia stellata

Red-throated Loon

SCI Name:  Gavia stellata
Protonym:  Colymbus Stellatus Dansk.Atlas 1 p.621
Category:  Gaviiformes / Gaviidae /
Taxonomy Code:  retloo
Type Locality:  Tame River, Warwickshire, England, ex Willughby (cf. Laubmann, 1922, Verb. Ornith. Gesell. Bayern, 15, p. 211).
Author:  
Publish Year:  1763
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

GAVIA
(Gaviidae; Great Northern Diver G. immer) L. gavia  unidentified seabird, perhaps some sort of gull, which nested amongst rocks; "H. ANSERES  ...  76. GAVIA, rostrum subulatum, compressum.  Pedes palmati, tetradactyli." (J. R. Forster 1788). Both Brisson 1760, and Boddaert 1783 (ex Brisson) also used "Gavia", but not in the generic sense. "Gavia J. R. Forster, 1788, Enchiridion Hist. Nat., p. 38. Type, by subsequent designation (J. A. Allen, 1908, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 24, p. 35), Colymbus imber Gunnerus = Colymbus immer Brünnich, and by plenary powers (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1956, Opin. Decl. Rend., 13, p. 3), Colymbus immer Brünnich." (Storer in Peters, 1979, 1, 2nd ed., p. 135).   
Synon. Cepphus, Colymbus, Eudites, Eudytes, Mergus, Urinator.
• (Laridae; syn. Anous  Brown Noddy A. stolidus) "Gavia, Brisson.  General structure of Sterna; but the tail is even or rounded.   G. leucoceps.   Pl. Enl. 997." (Swainson 1837); "Gavia Swainson, Classif. Birds, vol. ii. p. 373, July 1st, 1837.  Type (by monotypy): Gavia leucoceps Swainson = Sterna stolida Linné." (Mathews, 1927, Syst. Av. Austral., I, p. 145).
• (Laridae; syn. Hydrocoloeus Little Gull H. minutus) "a. Eigentliche Möven, Gavia; klein, grau u. weiß.  1. Art. L. minutus   ...  2. Art. L. canus, cinereus   ...   3. Art. L. ridibundus, canus   ...   4.  Art. L. Rissa, tridactylus   ...   b. Wielande; größer, mehr braun.   5. Art. L. naevius, marinus" (Oken, 1816, Lehrbuch Naturgesch., III (2), p. 537 (nom. rejic.)).
• (Laridae; syn. Larus † Black-headed Gull L. ridibundus) "KOKMEEUW, in 't Latyn Gavia. Viervingerige Meeuwen, by RAY. Syn. Av. 127. Meeuw, by LINNÆUS. Syst. Nat. gesl. 53" (Moehring 1758); "Krähenmöve. Gavia.  ... Mittelmaßig große Möven mit einfarbig dunkelblauem Kopf im Alter" (Kaup 1829); "Gavia Kaup, 1829,.  Type, by subsequent designation (G. Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera Subgenera Birds Brit. Mus., p. 130), Larus capistratus Temminck, 1820 =  Larus ridibundus Linnaeus, 1766." (JAJ 2021).
• (Laridae; syn. Larus † Slender-billed Gull L. genei) "IV. Gavia Bruch; Gelastes Bp. Zwergmöven.  ... 25)  gelastes Lichtenst." (Bruch 1853); "Gavia Bruch, 1853, Journal für Ornithologie, I (2), p. 102.  New name for Gelastes Bonaparte, ?1852, thus avoiding the abhorrent tautonym Gelastes gelastes." (JAJ 2021).
• (Laridae; syn. Pagophila Ivory Gull P. eburnea) "137. Gattung. Gavia.1  347. eburneus.  348. tridactylus  .... 1 Unterscheindendes Merkmal dieser Gruppe ist der auffallend kürzere Tarsus. Beyde Arten bewohnen ausschließlich Felsengestade" (Boie 1822); "Gavia: Lar. eburneus Lin." (Boie 1826); "Gavia Boie, 1822, Isis von Oken, col. 563.  Type, by subsequent designation (G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 79), G. eburnea (Gm.), i.e. Larus eburneus Phipps, 1774." (JAJ 2021). 
• (Laridae; syn. Rissa  Black-legged Kittiwake R. tridactyla) "14. Gavia B. 1822.  ... 4) Pedes nigri.  5) Rostrum flavum.   ...   1) Larus tridactylus Lin. 12, Rissa Lin. 12. enl. 387.   2) —— eburneus Gm. enl. 994.  3) —— Audouinii Payraudeau" (Boie 1844); "Gavia Boie, 1844, Isis von Oken, col. 191 (not of Boie, 1822).  For the benefit of The Key only, type here fixed by subsequent designation, Larus tridactylus Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2021).
• (Charadriidae; syn. Vanellus Northern Lapwing V. vanellus) "3. GAVIA.  Vanellus vulgaris.  Nidulatur in pratis & campis ad colliculos, paucis festucis substratis." (Klein 1766); "Man nennt diese Arten gewöhnlich (offenbar mit allzu wenig Rücksicht auf manche sehr bedeutende, anderweitige Berschiedenheiten unter einander!) ins Gesammt Kibitze (Gavia; Vanellus!)  Ein Wort, welches beiläufig den langgedehnten, klagenden, oft kreischenden Hauptlaut des gemeinen europäischen oder gehäubten K. (V. cristatus) versinnlicht" (Gloger 1842); "Gavia (not of Forster, 1788) Gloger, Hand- und Hilfsbuch Naturg., 1, p. 433, 1842—substitute name for Vanellus Brisson." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (3), p. 28).
(Laridae; syn. Xema † Sabine's Gull X. sabini) "GENUS CXLIX. GAVIA. MEW.  The "Sea-Mews" or "Smaller Gulls" have a considerable affinity to the Terns.  ... The name Gavia I have adopted from Brisson.  298. GAVIA ATRICILLA. BLACKISH-GREY-HEADED MEW.  ... 299. GAVIA RIDIBUNDA. BROWN-HEADED MEW.  ... 300. GAVIA SABINI. SABINE'S MEW.  ... 301. GAVIA MINUTA. LITTLE MEW" (MacGillivray 1842); "Gavia MacGillivray, 1842, Manual British Ornith., II, p. 240.  Type, by subsequent designation (G. Gray, 1855, Cat. Genera Subgenera Birds Brit. Mus., p. 130), Xema sabini Leach, i.e. Larus sabini J. Sabine, 1819." (JAJ 2021).

gavia
L. gavia  unidentified seabird, perhaps some sort of gull, which nested amongst rocks (Puffinus, syn. Rissa tridactyla, syn. Vanellus vanellus).

stellata / stellatus
L. stellatus starry, starred, set with stars < stella star.
● ex “Colymbus maximus stellatus” of Willughby 1676 (Gavia).
● ex “Étoilé” of Levaillant 1805, pl. 157 (Pogonocichla).