Ruffed Grouse / Bonasa umbellus
Protonym: Tetrao umbellus Syst.Nat.ed.12 ed.12 p.275
Taxonomy: Galliformes / Phasianidae / Bonasa
Taxonomy Code: rufgro
Type Locality: Pennsylvania.
Publish Year: 1766
IUCN Status: Least Concern
(Tetraonidae; Ϯ Ruffed Grouse B. umbellus) Mod. L. bonasa or bonasia Hazel Hen < Italian name Bonasia for the Hazel Hen < L. bonasus type of maned bull < Gr. βονασος bonasos aurochs, bison, bull (see bonasia); "BONASA. HEATHCOCK. ... SHOULDER-KNOT HEATHCOCK. (Bonasa Umbellus.) ... its manners greatly resemble those of the Black Grous: the male placing himself upon some elevated stump, when he commences his peculiar noise called thumping, by flapping his wings against his sides: he begins the strokes gradually, at about two seconds of time from each other, and repeats them quicker and quicker, until they make a noise not unlike distant thunder. This continues from the beginning about a minute; the bird ceases for six or eight minutes, and then begins again ... during the operation the crests on his head and sides of the neck are elevated, and the tail is expanded to its utmost ... They are called Drumming Partridges in some parts of North America; and at Hudson's Bay pushee or pupushee" (Stephens 1819): based on "Attagen Pensilvaniæ" and "Bonasa major Canadensis" of Brisson 1760, and Tetrao umbellus Linnaeus, 1766; "Bonasa Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zool., 9, pt. 2, 1819, p. 298. Type, by subsequent designation, Tetrao umbellus Linné. (A. O. U. Committee 1886.)" (Peters, 1934, II, p. 39).
Synon. Bonasia, Hylobrontes.
L. umbella parasol, umbrella < dim. umbra shade (cf. umbo, umbonis swelling, knob, shield-boss).
● "cervicale umbone exstante" (Linnaeus 1766); ex “Ruffed Heath-cock or Grous” of Edwards 1758, and "Attagen pensylvaniae" of Brisson 1760 (Bonasa).
Ruffed Grouse (yukonensis)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus yukonensis
Yukon Territory, Canada.
Ruffed Grouse (umbelloides)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus umbelloides
Specific name Tetrao umbellus Linnaeus, 1766; Gr. -οιδης -oidēs resembling; "T. Umbellus. ... In the valleys of the Rocky Mountains, 54º north latitude, and a few miles northwards near the sources of Peace river, a supposed variety of this species is found,—different from T. Umbellus of Wilson. ... First, the northern bird is constantly one-third smaller, of a very light speckled mixed gray, having little of that rusty colour so conspicuous in the southern bird:—secondly, the ruffle consists invariably of only 20 feathers, these short, black, and with but little azure glossiness; the crest-feathers are few and short. Should these characters hereafter be considered of sufficient importance for constituting a distinct species, it might perhaps be well to call it T. Umbelloïdes." (Douglas 1829) (subsp. Bonasa umbellus).
Ruffed Grouse (labradorensis)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus labradorensis
labradora / labradorensis
Labrador, Canada (named after Portuguese explorer and cartographer João Fernandes Lavrador (fl. 1498)).
● ex “Labrador Auk” (= ☼) of Pennant 1785 (syn. Fratercula arctica).
Ruffed Grouse (sabini)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus sabini
sabinei / sabini
● Joseph Sabine (1770-1837) English naturalist, barrister, Inspector of Assessed Taxes 1808-1835 (subsp. Bonasa umbellus, syn. Gallinago gallinago (Michael Grayson in litt.), Rhaphidura, syn. Rissa tridactyla).
● Gen. Sir Edward Sabine (1783-1883) British Army, astronomer, physicist, Arctic explorer 1818-1820, President of the Royal Society 1861-1871 (Dryoscopus, syn. Neafrapus cassini, Xema).
Ruffed Grouse (brunnescens)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus brunnescens
Mod. L. brunnescens, brunnescentis somewhat brown, brownish < brunneus brown < Med. L. brunius brown.
Ruffed Grouse (castanea)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus castanea
L. castaneus chestnut-coloured, chestnut-brown < castanea chestnut < Gr. καστανον kastanon chestnut.
● ex Ardea ralloides Scopoli, 1769, and “Castaneous Heron” of Latham 1785 (syn. Ardeola ralloides).
● ex “Merle doré de Madagascar” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 539, fig. 2 (Philepitta).
● (Kuhl 1820) ex “Gobe-mouche huppé du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 234, fig. 1 (syn. Terpsiphone paradisi).
● (Temminck 1835) ex “Tchitrec bé varié” of Levaillant 1805, pl. 146 (syn. Terpsiphone paradisi).
● ex “Pigeon de la Martinique” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Zenaida aurita).
Ruffed Grouse (affinis)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus affinis
affinae / affine / affinis
L. adfinis or affinis related, allied, neighbourly < ad towards; finis end, boundary. Over 85 forms share these specific epithets, which indicate relationship or similarity (not necessarily to a currently recognised congeneric species). Some descriptions contain no information as to the supposed related species (e.g., Apus (cf. “neighbouring, in reference to its habit of br[eeding] in close association with man” (Hockey et al. 2005)), Certhia, Coracias), some have subsequently been identified as hybrids (e.g., Ramphocelus affinis Lesson, 1840 = R. dimidiatus x R. icteronotus), and a few refer to allied taxa I have yet to identify. A selection of further examples follows.
● "Calornis affinis, A. Hay. This differs from the Malayan C. cantor [=syn. Aplonis panayensis] in its larger size. ... C. affinis inhabits Tipperah, Arracan, Tenasserim (?), and the Nicobar Islands: while C. cantor is common at Malacca." (Blyth 1846) (subsp. Aplonis panayensis).
● "Sp. 13. Aegotheles affinis, nov. sp. ... Questa specie somiglia all' A. novae-hollandiae [= syn. A. cristatus] più che non a qualunque altra specie ... Pel colore della coda l' A. affinis somiglia all' A. bennettii, Salvad., ma ne differisce pel colore rossigno delle parti sopra indicate e per le piume del sottocoda senza macchie."(Salvadori 1875) (Aegotheles).
● "Spec. 1. Cinnyris affinis mihi. ... Chess Javanis. The general description of the Certhia olivacea, Linn. Syst. i. p. 185. 5, a native of Madagascar [= Zosterops olivaceus], applies to this bird; but our species exceeds the former three inches in length, and it wants the white orbits."(Horsfield 1822) (Arachnothera).
● "FULIGULA AFFINIS. Fu.—Precedenti [Fuligula Marilla = Aythya marila] similis, sed rostro breviore et ungue angustiore armato. AMERICAN SCAUP. ... The above bird may be distinguished from the preceding in both sexes by the following comparative marks: total length less; bill shorter and not so broad; nail much narrower, and not so much rounded at its sides; tarsi shorter. ... This is another bird of which we have entertained considerable doubts as to the propriety of making into a species; the above distinctions, however, appear through all the specimens we have examined to be constant." (Eyton 1838) (Aythya).
● "Batrachostomus affinis, nobis, n. s. Very similar to B. javensis, in the plumage figured by Dr. Horsfield (and which is considered to be the young dress of Podargus auritus, Tem.), but smaller, with no white spots on the wing, nor pale spot-like bands on the tertiaries and caudal feathers; but the former are uniformly freckled over with dusky specks, and the latter present a series of obscure freckled bands, seen best at a little distance: throat and breast plain rufous, with a few white feathers having a subterminal dusky border on the fore-neck and sides of the breast only. Rest as in B. javensis, juv. ... This is the small Malayan species which I formerly considered might be Podargus stellatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 43: but it does not accord with the description of that species, and its dimensions are rather superior." (Blyth 1847) (Batrachostomus).
● "*CLIMACTERIS ERYTHROPS, Gould, var.? (CL. AFFINIS, nobis, n. s. ?) Like CL. ERYTHROPS, but with slight pale non-rufous supercilia, which are not conspicuously noticeable: throat dull whitish, passing to greyish on breast, and a small central ferruginous spot at base of throat: ear-coverts pale, streaked. Specimen doubtless of the female sex." (Blyth 1863) (Climacteris).
● "Another small dark Collocalia is common. Col. Tytler has no specimens of C. linchi (C. fuciphaga, auct.) with which to compare his specimens, but from recollection thinks his bird is distinct. He therefore provisionally calls it 15. COLLOCALIA AFFINIS, Tytler, sp. nov. ? Small Edible-nest Swiftlet. ... The nest of this species in Col. Tytler's collection resembles that of C. nidifica [= syn. Aerodramus fuciphagus inexpectatus], but is considerably smaller and perhaps whiter, on which account it is more valued by the Burmese and others, who collect both kinds for the Chinese and Penang markets." (Beavan 1867) (subsp. Collocalia esculenta).
● "MYIOLESTES AFFINIS, G. R. Gr. It is like the Myiolestes aruensis [= subsp. Colluricincla megarhyncha] on the upper surface, but the head has a slight tinge of grey; beneath, the body pale yellowish fuscous; throat slightly varied with white. It is rather smaller in its general measurements. Hab. Gagie." (G. Gray 1862) (subsp. Colluricincla megarhyncha).
● "1) Die verwandte Krähe, Corvus affinis, Br. Größe und Gestalt unserer Rabenkrähe mit einem Kolkraben-gefieder. Ich bin überzeugt, die gerupften australischen Vögel dieser Art werde man von unsern gerupften Rabenkräben nicht unterscheiden können." (Brehm 1845) (syn. Corvus coronoides).
● "Cyanocorax affinis. ... So sehr diese Art der vorhergehenden [Cyanocorax Diesingii = subsp. C. chrysops] gleicht, so unterscheidet sie sich doch sogleich durch ihre bedeutendere Grösse, durch breiteren, weniger zusammengedrückten Schnabel, weniger reiche Kopffedern und durch in manchen Punkten abweichende Färbung." (von Pelzeln 1856) (Cyanocorax).
● "Cymbirhynchus was separated by Mr. Vigors on account of the forward position of the nostrils and some other particulars; and Mr. Swainson lays much stress upon the vertical depth of its bill, which certainly is a marked feature in the common Malayan and Tenasserim species (C. nasutus) [= syn. C. macrorhynchos]; but there is a very closely allied species in Arracan, which, until I had obtained a good series of both, I declined to venture on distinguishing, but which I shall now designate C. affinis, nobis." (Blyth 1846) (Cymbirhynchus).
● "H. AFFINIS G. R. Gray. Mas. Præcedenti [Hapalophus Cubla = Dryoscopus cubla] similis, sed rostro capitis fere longitudine; alarum tectricibus concoloribus; caudæ plumis remigibusque leviter albomarginatis." (G. Gray 1837) (subsp. Dryoscopus cubla).
● "Emberiza xanthogastra P. Würt., Icon. No. 36. halte ich für ein intensiv gefärbtes Exemplar der Fringillaria flavigastra. Hierher gehören auch Megalotis quinquevittatus, Emberiza albicollis und E. affinis der Sammlung von Mergentheim. E. albicollis zeigt ein deutliches weisses Hinterhalsband; bei E. affinis fehlen die weissen Flügelbinden." (von Heuglin 1867) (Emberiza).
● "9. Tyrannula affinis. ... Maritime parts of Mexico. 10. Tyrannula obscura. Muscicapa querulæ? [= syn. Contopus virens] Vieil. Ois. de l'Am. pl. 39. ... Mexico. Rather larger than the last." (Swainson 1827) (Empidonax).
● "9º Tanagra (aglaia) diaconus, Less. [= syn. Tangara episcopus cana] ... Hab. Realejo. 10º Tanagra (Euphonia) affinis, Less. ... Hab. Realejo." (Lesson 1842) (Euphonia).
● "6. Geococcyx affinis, m. Differt a G. viatico, Licht [= Cuculus viaticus = syn. G. californianus]. cui primo adspectu simillimus 1. Plumis corporis superioris et rectricibus intermediis omnino magis cupreo-brunneis ... 2. Corpore subtus toto fulvescente-ochraceo, pectore maculis nonnullis longitudinalibus nigris sparsim notato ... 3. Statura minore; rostro et tarsis multo brevioribus, cauda pro mole longiore." (Hartlaub 1844) (syn. Geococcyx velox).
● "206. — Eriocnemis affinis ELLIOT. TACZ., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 39." (Taczanowski 1884); "Perhaps a lapsus for assimilis but description based on specimens collected in 1880 at Ray-Urmaña, Chirimoto, by Stolzmann; one of these same specimens served as the type of domaniewskii. In spite of the similarity in meaning affinis and assimilis are different words." (Peters 1968, V, 113) (subsp. Haplophaedia assimilis).
● "1. HEMIGNATHUS AFFINIS, sp. n. This bird is very closely allied to H. hanapepe, of Kauai, but differs in having the head, throat, and upper breast more golden yellow, and the back, rump, and upper wing-coverts dull olive colour instead of greenish yellow. Moreover, in H. affinis the yellow of the head terminates abruptly at the occiput, while it gradually passes into the colour of the back in H. hanapepe. The anal region and under tail-coverts are yellowish green, whilst in H. hanapepe they are white." (Rothschild 1893) (‡Hemignathus).
● "Dendrocolaptes affinis, de La Fr. — Valde affinis Picolapti guttato Lessonii [= Picolaptes guttata = syn. Lepidocolaptes fuscus], ab illo differt hæc species, statura majore et præsertim cauda alisque longioribus, maculisque totis colli pectoris et abdominis stramineis distincte nigro limbatis, quasi oculatis, his in Picolapte guttato majoribus, albidioribus, minus distinctis, lateribus tantum fusco marginatis." (de La Fresnaye 1839) (Lepidocolaptes).
● "Trichastoma, Nobis; n.g. ... *Tr. rostratum, Nobis. ... *Tr. affine, Nobis. So like the other in plumage as to cause some doubt, on a first view, whether it be specifically distinct; but the much smaller size, and different colour, of the legs and feet, and also the much shorter bill, have decided me to adopt the present course with it. ... General colour rather paler than in the preceding, excepting on the head; the nape much paler; and rump inclining to fulvous more than rufous: tail and its coverts brighter rufous than in the other; and breast crossed with pale fuscous." (Blyth 1842) (Malacopteron).
● "7. Eidopsarus affinis. — Capite, genis, gulaque nigerrimis; corpore supra luteo-olivacea, albo griseoque tincto infra; collo et thorace albidis; alis et cauda brunneo griseis. Hab. Nova-Wallia meridionalis. 8. Meliphaga reticuloides [= syn. Melithreptus affinis].— Capite bruneo; corpore supra bruneo-olivaceo, sordide fusco, bruneo striato infra; alarum et caudæ pennis brunneis, luteo-olivaceo marginatis. Long. 5 poll. Hab. Nova-Wallia meridionalis." (Lesson 1839) (Melithreptus).
● "HESPERIPHONA AFFINIS, n. s.* ... *HESPERIPHONA AFFINIS, nobis. Nearly affined to H. ICTERIOIDES (Coccothraustes icterioides, Vigors) [= Mycerobas icterioides]. ... The adult male so nearly resembles that of H. ICTERIOIDES, that its distinctness would scarcely have been suspected, had it not been for the great difference of the other sex." (Blyth 1855) (Mycerobas).
● "42. Nilaus affinis. Bocage. N. indig. Caporo. Hesitámos por muito tempo em estabelecer uma especia nova n'um genero que é ha muito conhecido por ter uma só especie; porém a constancia com que se nos apresentam os exemplares de Caconda distinctos do N. brubru pela ausencia total de malhas ferruginosas nos lados do peito e por outras variantes de côres, anima-nos a separal-os especificamente d'este. ... 5. Nilaus affinis. Ad. N. brubru [= subsp. Nilaus afer] similis, sed diversus; superciliis albis brevioribus; gastraeo toto albo, maculis pectoralibus castaneis nullis; fascia alari alba vix rufescente tincta; rostro nigricante; pedibus ardesiacis; iride fusca." (Barboza du Bocage 1878) (subsp. Nilaus afer).
● "10. NINOX AFFINIS, Tytler, sp. nov.? Andaman Hawk-Owl. ... Closely allied to Ninox scutellatus (Raffles) [= N. scutulata] but very considerably smaller, and differing also in being much more rufous on the under parts, and generally darker above." (Beavan 1867) (Ninox).
● "Sp. 39. Melilestes affinis, nov. sp. Melilestes M. ILIOLOPHO simillimus, sed capite supra cinerascentiore, dorso olivaceo paullo obscuriore, collo antico magis cineraceo." (Salvadori 1876) (syn. Oedistoma iliolophus).
● "263. Oriolus viridis [= syn. Oriolus sagittatus] ... 264. Oriolus affinis, Gould. Inhabits the neighbourhood of Port Essington, and only differs from the preceding species in having a smaller body, a shorter wing, a much larger bill, and in the white spots at the tip of the lateral tail-feathers being much smaller in extent." (Gould 1848) (subsp. Oriolus sagittatus).
● "Penelopides affinis, sp. n. ♂. Like P. Panini, but differs by wanting the perpendicular grooves on the thick lateral plates of the maxilla, which are smooth, by the grooves at the base of the mandible not being recurved, but straight, by the whole bill being much less massive, by the abdominal region and under tail-coverts being of the same colour as the breast, and not rufous, by the upper tail-coverts being black, and not rufous, and by the rectrices having a black band at their insertion." (Tweeddale 1877) (Penelopides).
● "30. MOTACILLA OFFINIS. Olive Willow Wren, T. (Willow Wren? [= Phylloscopus trochilus]) 5½ inches. Male. Upper parts dark olivaceous ashy-brown. Beneath, brownish yellow ochre. Clear yellow streak over eye. Upper mandible dark, lower pale horn: legs horn, eyes hazle. Killed in high-timbered jungle, on the banks of a stream." (Tickell 1833) (Phylloscopus).
● "536. ABRORNIS AFFINIS, Hodgson. ... This species is closely allied to A. poliogenys [= Phylloscopus poliogenys (formerly Seicercus poliogenys)], but differs from it in having the lores, base of lower mandible, lower portion of the ear-coverts, chin and throat, the same bright yellow as the rest of the under-parts; the feathers of the crown are pale shafted, which does not appear in poliogenys" (Hodgson 1854) (syn. Phylloscopus intermedius (formerly Seicercus affinis)).
● "Barbatula affinis sp. n. B. uropygiali [= subsp. Pogoniulus pusillus] simillima sed uropygio sulphureo; abdomine albido; pectore stramineo lavato." (Reichenow 1879) (subsp. Pogoniulus pusillus).
● "Zosterornis affinis sp. nov. ... Specific characters.—Similar to Zosterornis nigrocapitata (Steere) but slightly larger; chestnut of chin and upper throat diffused and not forming a patch on each side." (McGregor 1907) (subsp. Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus).
● "3. Elaenea pagana Licht. ... 4. Elaenea affinis Lund. ... Dieser Vogel ist an seinem zur Hälfte blaßgelben und dann tief schwarzgefärbten Schwanz scharf von der vorigen, ähnlichen Art verschieden; er bewohnt die lichten Campos im Innern Brasiliens" (Burmeister 1856) (Suiriri).
● "Taccocua affinis, nobis. ... I find that the Sirkeer of the Rajmahl and Monghyr hills requires further to be distinguished from that of the Cawnpore district, higher up the Ganges in the WNW. direction. ... It combines the size of T. sirkee with the colouring of T. infuscata; but has the bill rather more abruptly curved over than in either, and coloured as in all its congeners." (Blyth 1846) (syn. Taccocua leschenaultii infuscata).
● "1. Tch. paradisi, (L.) [= Terpsiphone paradisi] ... 2. Tch. affinis, A. Hay, MS.: Malayan Tch. paradisi, auctorum; Muscipeta castanea (?), Temminck. In any state of plumage, this species may be distinguished from the last by having the crest never more than seven-eighths of an inch in length (generally less), and the feathers which compose the crest are broader and much more commingled into a uniform smooth surface than in the other. The middle tail-feathers of the male rarely, if ever, attain a foot in length; whereas in the Indian species, they often exceed fifteen inches; in form, too, they are very much narrower than in Tch. paradisi (vera)." (Blyth 1846) (Terpsiphone).
● "CRINON ANALOGUE (Criniger affinis). Femelle. Partie supérieure vert olivâtre, plumes de la tête hastées; nuque pourvue d'un petit nombre de soies très fines et peu longues ... Habite Warou (Ceram)." (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841) (Thapsinillas).
● "POGONORHYNCHUS AFFINIS, n. sp. In size and colouring this species resembles P. leucomelas, excepting that the entire forehead and crown are black as in P. melanocephalus [= Tricholaema melanocephala]. In the bill and rictal bristles it resembles P. leucomelas, but the tooth on the upper mandible is barely indicated and the culmen between the nostrils is not quite so wide." (Shelley 1880) (subsp. Tricholaema leucomelas).
● "15. G. variegatus; Cincl. variegatum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 55 [= Trochalopteron variegatum], and figured in Gould's Century, Pl. XVI. Nepâl. 16. G. affinis, Hodgson. M. S. Nearly allied both to the last, and (judging from description) to the next species. ... Inhabits Nepâl. 17. G. capistratus; Cincl. capistratum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 55 [= Heterophasia capistrata]. Himalaya." (Blyth 1843) (Trochalopteron).
● "Yarrell and others extend the range of S. flammea [= Tyto alba] to South Africa; but a Cape specimen we have is certainly distinct, and is Strix affinis, nobis (Strix flammea apud nos, J. A. S. xxix. 100). It is rather larger than Strix flammea, with the general colouring much deeper, the back being of a more prevalent and darker ashy, the lower parts more strongly fulvous, and especially the primaries and tail much more broadly and distinctly banded, the dark markings being greatly more developed than even in the true S. flammea of Europe and N. Africa." (Blyth 1862) (subsp. Tyto alba).
● "Catarractes affinis, sp. nov. A new species of Catarractes, somewhat larger than C. lomvia Linn., may be based upon a right humerus, which is entire, and in an excellent state of preservation. This specimen was referred to by the writer in the description of Catarractes antiquus, from the Tertiary of North Carolina, and the latter is evidently a nearly related species." (Marsh 1872) (‡Uria).
● "PICUS affinis, Golden-naped Woodpecker. ... ORNITHOLOGISTS have either entirely overlooked this bird, or have slightly noticed it as a variety of Picus icterocephalus [= syn. Piculus flavigula], the golden-headed Woodpecker, from which it is nevertheless quite distinct." (Swainson 1821) (Veniliornis).
● "ORTYGOMETRA AFFINIS. ... This species is most like R. palustris [= subsp. Zapornia pusilla] of Mr. Gould, but it has not any white spots on the primaries, and the bill appears to be rather longer." (J. Gray 1846) (subsp. Zapornia pusilla).
Ruffed Grouse (phaios)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus phaios
Gr. φαιος phaios dusky, brown, dark, grey.
Ruffed Grouse (incana)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus incana
(Cisticolidae; Ϯ Socotra Warbler I. incana) Specific name Cisticola incana P. Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881; "Cisticola incana Scl. & Hartl., P. Z. S. 1881, p. 166, pl. 15. TYPE in British Mus., "♂ coll. by Prof. Balfour, 23 March 1880, on Sokotra Is."; imm. ♂, wing 50, tail 44: examined and judged to be, not a Cisticola, but more like a Franklinia, probably best classified as the Type of:- Incana incana genus nov., defined thus:- Form. Near Franklinia, viz. bill long, very straight, slender and much compressed apically; feet rather large; wings short, obtuse, weak (the foregoing copied from the orig. descr. in P. Z. S. 1881, to which add); texture of plumage loose and soft, particularly dense and puffy on lower back and rump; but tail Cisticoline, less steeply graduated than Franklinia, and rectrices not so narrow (twelve in no., as in both sp.). Coloration (Only Summer and juvenile dresses known) Plain brownish grey above and white below; more like Franklinia than any species of Cisticola, except tail which is of Cisticoline spotted fan pattern above and below, with white tips and outermost edgings, that of the male Summer dress also with conspicuous white mirrors. Habits (according to description). Much more like Franklinia than Cisticola." (Lynes 1930).
Ruffed Grouse (mediana)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus mediana
L. medianus middle < medius intermediate.
Ruffed Grouse (togata)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus togata
togata / togatus
L. togatus gowned, dressed in the toga < toga garment < tegere to cover (cf. togata of a prostitute (see canace)); ex “Grosse Gélinote de Canada” of Brisson 1760 (subsp. Bonasa umbellus).
Ruffed Grouse (thayeri)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus thayeri
Col. John Eliot Thayer (1862-1933) US ornithologist, collector, patron of the sciences (syn. Bonasa umbellus, subsp. Colinus virginianus, subsp. Larus glaucoides).
Ruffed Grouse (umbellus)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus umbellus
L. umbella parasol, umbrella < dim. umbra shade (cf. umbo, umbonis swelling, knob, shield-boss).
● "cervicale umbone exstante" (Linnaeus 1766); ex “Ruffed Heath-cock or Grous” of Edwards 1758, and "Attagen pensylvaniae" of Brisson 1760 (Bonasa).
Ruffed Grouse (monticola)
SCI Name: Bonasa umbellus monticola
(Muscicapidae; Ϯ Rufous-tailed Rock Thrush M. saxatilis) L. monticola mountain-dweller, mountaineer < mons, montis mountain; -cola inhabitant < colere to dwell; "22. Familie. Drosseln, Turdus. 43. Gattung. Monticola.2 85. saxatilis 86. cyanus. ... 2 Unterscheidendes Kennzeichen der Gattung: das rostrothe oder schieferblaue Gefieder." (Boie 1822); "Monticola Boie, 1822, Isis, col. 552. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1847, Gen. Birds, 1, p. 220), Turdus saxatilis Linnaeus." (Ripley in Peters 1964, X, 135).
Synon. Colonocincla, Cyanocincla, Migratorius, Notiocichla, Notiocincla, Orocetes, Oroscirtetes, Petrocincla, Petrocossyphus, Petrophila, Petrornis, Pseudocossyphus.
UPPERCASE: current genus
Uppercase first letter: generic synonym
● and ● See: generic homonyms
lowercase: species and subspecies
●: early names, variants, mispellings
†: type species
Gr.: ancient Greek
<: derived from
syn: synonym of
/: separates historical and modern geographic names
ex: based on
TL: type locality
OD: original diagnosis (genus) or original description (species)