Rufous-crowned Sparrow / Aimophila ruficeps

Rufous-crowned Sparrow / Aimophila ruficeps

Rufous-crowned Sparrow

SCI Name:  Aimophila ruficeps
Protonym:  Ammodromus ruficeps Proc.Acad.Nat.Sci.Philadelphia 6 p.184
Taxonomy:  Passeriformes / Passerellidae /
Taxonomy Code:  rucspa
Type Locality:  Calaveras River [east of Stockton], California.
Publish Year:  1852
IUCN Status:  


(Passerellidae; Rusty Sparrow A. rufescens) Gr. αιμος aimos  copse, thicket; φιλος philos  lover; alluding to the scrubby habitats favoured by these American sparrows; "Aimophila, Sw.   Bill more lengthened, unequally conic, compressed: the base of the culmen elevated and dividing the frontal feathers.  Upper mandible slightly notched at the tip, and thicker at the base than the under one: commissure sinuated: culmen slightly arched from the base.  Wings short, rounded; the two first quills graduated.  Tail moderate, rounded; the feathers rather narrow.  Feet strong.  The lateral toes nearly equal.  Claws slender, slightly curved.   America only.    G. rufescens. Part 5. No. 102.   superciliosa. Ib. No. 101." (Swainson 1837 (July)); "101.  AIMOPHILA superciliosa.  Above, sparrow brown, striped with black; beneath, cinereous grey  ...  Inhabits Mexico.   ...   102.  AIMOPHILA rufescens.  Above, rufous brown, unspotted; beneath, greyish white  ...  Inhabits Mexico." (Swainson 1837 (Dec.)); "Aimophila Swainson, Nat. Hist. & Classif. Bds., 2, p. 287, July, 1837 (generic characters only); idem, Anim. in Menag., p. 314, Dec. 31, 1837—type, by subs. desig. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., p. 46, 1840), Aimophila rufescens Swainson = Pipilo rufescens Swainson.   ...    2 The two species cited by Swainson were at the time undescribed, and were not characterized until six months later.  Gray designated A. rufescens, one of the two species described by Swainson in "Anim. in Menageries" in connection with the generic name Aimophila, as genotype." (Hellmayr, 1938, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. XI, p. 516).
Synon. Haemophila.

aimophila / aimophilus
Gr. αιμος aimos  copse, thicket; φιλος philos  loving  < φιλεω phileō  to love  < φιλος philos  lover.

L. rufus  red, ruddy; -ceps  -headed  < caput, capitis  head.
● ex “Tordo del corona de canela” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 72 (syn. Chrysomus ruficapillus).


Rufous-crowned Sparrow (ruficeps)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps ruficeps
L. rufus  red, ruddy; -ceps  -headed  < caput, capitis  head.
● ex “Tordo del corona de canela” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 72 (syn. Chrysomus ruficapillus).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (canescens)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps canescens
L. canescens, canescentis  greyish  < canescere  to become hoary or white  < canere  to be grey  < canus grey.
● ex “Van Diemen’s Warbler” of Latham 1787 (subsp. Phylidonyris novaehollandiae).
● ex “Cinereous Godwit” of Pennant 1768, and Latham 1785 (syn. Tringa nebularia).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (obscura)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps obscura
L. obscurus  dark, dusky, covered, obscure.
● ex “Dusky Duck” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Anas rubripes).
● ex “Brown Tern” of Pennant 1768, and Latham 1785 (syn. Chlidonias niger).
● ex “Yacúhú” of de Azara 1802-1805, No. 335: “Yacús  ...  Asi llaman los Güaranís á tres páxaros  ...  á otro llamado Mitú” (Penelope).
● ex “Dusky Petrel” of Latham 1785 (?syn. Pterodroma alba; unident.).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (sanctorum)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps sanctorum
Mod. L. sanctorum  of the saints  < Late L. sanctus  saint  < L. sanctus  holy  < sancire  to consecrate.
● Todos Santos Is., Baja California, Mexico (‡subsp. Aimophila ruficeps).
Todos Santos, Guatemala (subsp. Leuconotopicus villosus).
San Benito Is. (= Islas San Benito), Baja California, Mexico (Passerculus).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (sororia)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps sororia
sororia / sororius
L. sororius  of a sister, sisterly  < soror, sororis  sister (i.e. closely related).
● "Aimophila2 ruficeps sororia. LAGUNA SPARROW.  ... 2 I am at present unable to discover any characters sufficient to separate Peucæa from Aimophila, unless the former be restricted to P. æstivalis, P. botteri, and P. cassini. Aimophila ruficeps is connected with the type (A. ruficauda) by such intermediate species as A. mcleodi, which Mr. Brewster described as an Aimophila and Messrs. Salvin and Godman as a Peucæa (P. megarhyncha)" (Ridgway 1898) (subsp. Aimophila ruficeps).
● "♂ mari M. gutturalis, Scl. et Salv., simillimus  ... Peut-être la M. sororia est-elle encore plus proche de la M. spodionota, Scl. et Salv., de l'Équateur oriental, ou même identique" (von Berlepsch & Sztolcman 1894) (subsp. Epinecrophylla spodionota).
● "G. G. regulo dicta cui forma similis affinis" (von Berlepsch & Sztolcman 1901) (subsp. Grallaria guatimalensis).
● "Similar to H. f. aurigularis ... but males with throat paler yellow" (Zimmer 1947) (subsp. Hemithraupis flavicollis).
● "This is a northern representative of L. nematura of the wood-region of Brazil, and is closely allied to that species" (P. Sclater & Salvin 1873) (subsp. Lochmias nematura).
● "Much like M. m. melanolaema [= syn. Myrmoborus myotherinus] Scl. ... but averaging smaller" (Hellmayr 1910) (subsp. Myrmoborus myotherinus).
● "The Sphenocercus I should like to stand as S. sororius, from its close affinity to S. sieboldii" (Swinhoe 1866) (subsp. Treron sieboldii).
● "This form comes nearest to D. rostripallens [= syn. Xiphorhynchus guttatus guttatoides] Des Murs of Upper Amazonia" (von Berlepsch & Hartert 1902) (syn. Xiphorhynchus guttatus polystictus).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (scottii)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps scottii
scotti / scottii
● William Earle Dodge Scott (1852-1910) US ornithologist at Mus. of Biology, Princeton 1876-1910 (subsp. Aimophila ruficeps, subsp. Rallus crepitans, syn. Vireo olivaceus (Laurent Raty in litt.)).
● Lt. Algot Erling Scott-Skovs (1899-1943) Danish ornithologist in British Army (SOE; executed by the Japanese), explorer, collector (syn. Alectoris chukar cypriotes).
● Prof. John Halliday Scott (1851-1914) Scottish surgeon, anthropologist, water-colourist, settled in New Zealand 1877, Dean of Medical School, University of Otago (subsp. Gallirallus australis).
● Maj.-Gen. Winfield Scott (1786-1866) US Army (syn. Icterus parisorum).
● Capt. George Francis Scott-Elliott (1862-1934) British Army, botanist, explorer, collector in tropical Africa and South America (syn. Zosterops senegalensis stuhlmanni).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (rupicola)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps rupicola
(Cotingidae; Ϯ Guianan Cock-of-the-Rock R. rupicola) Mod. L. rupicola  cliff-dweller  < L. rupes, rupis  rock  < rumpere  to shatter; -cola  dweller  < colere  to inhabit. The Guianan Cock-of-the-rock was named “Coq-de-roche” because of its flat-sided, galliform crest and habit of nesting in caves; "Genus Rupicolæ. (1).  ... (1) Nomen a me illi inditum ob habitationem in rupibus.  ... Les François de la Guiane l'appellent COC DES ROCHES" (Brisson 1760): based on "Gallus ferus, saxatilis, croceus, cristam e plumis constructam gerens" of Barrère 1741, "Upupa Americana, crocea, saxatilis" of Barrère 1745, and "Upupa crocea" of Linnaeus 1748; "Rupicola Brisson, 1760, Ornithologie, 4, p. 437. Type, by monotypy, "Rupicola" = Pipra rupicola Linnaeus." (Snow in Peters 1979, VIII, 306). 
Synon. Orinus.
● (syn. Columba Ϯ Rock Dove C. livia) "I rod'.  Columba L.   A) Rupicola.  1. Columba livia Briss. (C. neglecta Sewerzow).  ...  2. Columba rupestris Pall.    B) Sylvicola.  3. Columba fusca Pall. (C. Eversmanni Bp. = C. fusca, β brachyura Sew.).  4. Columba œnas Briss." (Bogdanov 1881) (OD per Laurent Raty); "Rupicola BOGDANOW, Trudy S.-Peterb. obshch. estest. (Zool.), vol. 12, 1881, p. 99.  Type, Columba livia "BRISSON"  (Present designation.)" (Richmond 1917).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (simulans)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps simulans
L. simulans, simulantis  imitative, imitating  < simulare  to make like.
● "In the black frontal band this form resembles P. c. frontalis Hellmayr [1895] from N. E. Brazil but differs otherwise" (Nelson 1912) (subsp. Caryothraustes canadensis).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (eremoeca)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps eremoeca
Gr. ερημος erēmos  desert; οικος oikos  dwelling  < οικεω oikeō  to inhabit.

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (fusca)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps fusca
L. fuscus  dusky, black, brown. Despite its classical meaning this epithet is used in ornithology to indicate a very wide spectrum of colours from black, grey and brown to a range of dark tints including slate-blue and dusky-orange (see also fuscus).
ex “Héron brun de Cayenne” (= ☼) of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 858, and “Héron brun” of de Buffon 1770-1786 (syn. Agamia agami).
● ex “Gobe-mouche brun de la Martinique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 568, fig. 2 (Allenia).
● ex “Brown Sandpiper” of Pennant 1768, and Latham 1787 (syn. Calidris minuta).
● ex “Brown Tern” of Latham 1785 (syn. Chlidonias niger).
● ex “Promérops de la nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 638, “Promérops brun à ventre rayé” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Promérops brun de la nouvelle Guinée” of Sonnerat 1776, and “New Guinea brown Promerops” of Latham 1782 (syn. Epimachus fastuosus).
● ex “White-breasted Barbet” of Latham 1782 (Malacoptila).
● "61. ANAS.  ...  fusca.  5. A. nigricans, macula pone oculos lineaque alarum albis.  Anas corpore obscuro, macula alba pone oculos, lineaque alba. Fn. svec. 106. It. gotl. 215. 271.  Anas fera fusca. Jonst. av. t. 44.  Anas niger. Will. orn. 278. t. 10. Raj. av. 141.  Habitat in oceano Europæo.  Mas ad basin rostri gibbositate notatus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Melanitta).
● ex “Martin-pêcheur de la Nouvelle Guinée” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 663 (= ♀), and “Great Brown Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (syn. Melidora macrorrhina).
● ex “Tangara brun d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 155, fig. 2 (syn. Paroaria gularis).
● ex “Coot-footed Tringa” of Edwards 1743-1751, “Phalaropus fuscus” of Brisson 1760, and “Brown Phalarope” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Phalaropus lobatus).
● ex “Brown Creeper from the South Seas” of Latham 1782 (syn. Phylidonyris undulata).
● ex “Golondrina parda” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 301 (subsp. Progne tapera).
● ex "Figuier étranger" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 58, fig. 3 (Setophaga).
● ex “Bouveron” of de Buffon 1770-1783: “J’appelle ainsi cet oiseau ... parce qu’il me paroît faire la nuance entre les bouvreuils [bullfinches] d’Europe et les bec-ronds [seedeaters] d’Amérique” (syn. Sporophila lineola).
● ex “Barge brune” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 875 (syn. Tringa erythropus).
● ex “Rasle brun des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Zapornia).
● ex “Tourterelle de la Caroline” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 175 (syn. Zenaida macroura carolinensis).
● "96. LOXIA.  ...  fusca.  25. L. fusca, subtus albida, remigibus a tertia ad nonam basi omnino albis. Chin. Lagerstr. 19.  Habitat in Benghala." (Linnaeus 1758) (unident.).
● ex “Figuier brun-olive” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Olive-brown Warbler” of Latham 1783, and Pennant 1785 (unident.).
● ex “Gobe-mouche brun de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 574, fig. 1 (unident.; has been linked with Cnemotriccus fuscatus and with Contopus cinereus).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (boucardi)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps boucardi
boucardi / boucardii
Adolphe Boucard (1839-1904) French naturalist, collector (subsp. Aimophila ruficeps, AmaziliaCrypturellus, subsp. Granatellus sallaei, subsp. Microrhopias quixensis, subsp. Myrmeciza longipes).

Rufous-crowned Sparrow (australis)
SCI Name: Aimophila ruficeps australis
australe / australis
L. australis  southern  < auster, austri  south.
● Tierra del Fuego; ex “Thorn-tailed Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Aphrastura spinicauda).
● Cayenne; ex “Southern Sandpiper” of Latham 1785 (?syn. Calidris canutus).
● Erroneous TL "Friendly Islands" (= Tasmania); ex "South-Sea Raven" of Latham 1781 (syn. Corvus coronoides).
● Erroneous TL. New Guinea (= Luzon, Philippines); ex “Manikor de la Nouvelle Guinée” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (Dicaeum).
● Australia; ex “New Holland Snipe” of Latham 1801 (syn. Gallinago hardwickii).
● Australia; ex “Pacific Paroquet (var.)” of Phillip 1789 (syn. Glossopsitta concinna).
● Australia; ex “New Holland Pelican” of Latham 1824 (syn. Pelecanus conspicillatus).
● Australia; ex “Cold-river Goatsucker” of Latham 1823 (syn. Podargus strigoides).
● Australia; ex “New Holland Quail” of Latham 1802 (Synoicus).
● Tasmania; ex Brown MS (syn. Lathamus discolor).
● Dusky Sound, New Zealand (syn. Nestor meridionalis).
● Staten I., off Tierra del Fuego (= Isla de los Estados, Argentina); ex “Statenland Eagle” of Latham 1781 (Phalcoboenus).
● Christmas I.; ex "Southern Tern" of Latham 1785 (syn. Procelsterna caerulea) (so identified by Stresemann 1950).
● Kerguelen I.; ex “Southern Tern” of Latham 1785 (?syn. Sterna vittata).
● Madagascar; ex “Palumbus viridis Madagascariensis” of Brisson 1760 (Treron).
● Erroneous TL. Sandwich Is. (= Samoa); ex “Blue-crested Parrakeet” of Latham 1781 (Vini).
● Tierra del Fuego; ex “Rusty-collared Finch” of Latham 1783 (subsp. Zonotrichia capensis).