Stilt Sandpiper / Calidris himantopus

Stilt Sandpiper / Calidris himantopus

Stilt Sandpiper

SCI Name:  Calidris himantopus
Protonym:  Tringa himantopus Ann.Lyc.Nat.Hist.N.Y. 2 p.157
Category:  Charadriiformes / Scolopacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  stisan
Type Locality:  Long Branch, New Jersey.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1826
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

CALIDRIS
(Scolopacidae; Red Knot C. canutus) Specific name Tringa calidris J. Gmelin, 1789 (= syn. Calidris canutus); "Knüffel, Calidris.  Schnabel walzenförmig, gegen die Spitze hin dicker, glatt.  Mittlere und äußere Zehe etwas verbunden.   Tringa calidris, arenaria u.a." (Merrem 1804); "LES MAUBÈCHES. (CALIDRIS. Cuv.) (1)  ...  La grande Maubèche grise, Sandpiper et Canut, des Anglais. (Tringa grisea et Tr. Canutus. Gm.) Le plum. d'hiver, enl. 366. Edw. 276.  ...  (1) CALIDRIS, oiseau cendré et tacheté, fréquentant les rivières et les bois. Arist.  Brisson l'applique à l'une des espèces de ce genre" (Cuvier 1817); "Calidris Anonymous = Merrem, Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 2, no. 168, 8 June, 1804, col. 542.  Type, by tautonymy, Tringa calidris Gmelin = Tringa canutus Linné." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 280). 
Var. Calidridris, CallidrisCallydris, Calydris, Chalidris.   
Synon. Actia, Actodromas, Ancylocheilus, Anteliotringa, Aphriza, Arquatella, Canutus, Cinclus, Delopygia, Ereunetes, Erolia, Eurynorhynchus, Falcinellus, Hemipalama, Heteropoda, Heteropygia, Leimonites, Limicola, Limnocinclus, Machetes, Machophilus, Micropalama, Neopisobia, Pavia, Pavoncella, Pelidna, Philomachus, Pisobia, Platyrhamphus, Schoeniclus, Schoeniculus, Symphemia, Tryngites.
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Calidris  Sanderling C. alba) Specific name Charadrius calidris Linnaeus, 1766 (= syn. Calidris alba); "GENUS 89. CALIDRIS.  Arenaria Meyer, Bechstein (Sandläufer Germ.  Sanderling Angl.).   Rostrum mediocre, tenue, rectum, teretiusculum, maxillae dertro paullulum incrassato, in apicem deflexo.  Nares parvae, oblongo-ovales.  Alae volatiles.  Pedes grallarii, mediocres, cursorii, tridactyli, digitis ad basin usque fissis.  Acropodia scutulata.  Species: Charadrius Calidris Lin." (Illiger 1811); "Calidris ILLIGER, Prodromus, 1811, 249. Type, by [tautonymy and] monotypy, Charadrius calidris LINNÆUS = Tringa leucophæa PALLAS [= Trynga alba Pallas]." (AOU Check-List, ed. 3, 1910, 118); ""Tringa leucophaea" Anonymous (in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. d'Ois., p. 32, 1764—northern coast of Holland) is not binomial." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (3), p. 171, footnote).   
Synon. ArenariaArenula, Crocethia.

calidris
Gr. καλιδρις kalidris or σκαλιδρις skalidris  speckled, grey-coloured waterside bird mentioned by Aristotle, not further identified, but later conjectured to be a sandpiper or a wagtail.
● ex "Petite Maubèche grise" of Brisson 1760 (syn. Calidris alba).
● "Der südliche Schlammläufer.  Pelidna calidris, Br. (Tringa alpina, Linn.)" (Brehm 1831) (syn. Calidris alpina).
● ex “Rusticola sylvatica” of Gessner 1555, and Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and “Calidris” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Calidris canutus).
● ex “Totanus” of Belon 1555, and Brisson 1760, “Calidris Bellonii” of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and “Gallinula erythropus major” of Willughby 1676, Ray 1713, and Marsigli 1726 (syn. Tringa totanus).
● ex “American Nightingale” of Edwards 1750 (unident.).

HIMANTOPUS
(Recurvirostridae; Ϯ Black-winged Stilt H. himantopus) L. himantopus, himantopodis  wading bird now generally identified with the Black-winged Stilt  < Gr. ἱμαντοπους himantopous, ἱμαντοποδος himantopodos  wading bird, spindle-shanks  < ἱμας himas, ἱμαντος himantos  strap, thong; πους pous, ποδος podos  foot; "Himantopus. Genus 67.  ...  Genus Himantopi.  Le genre de l'Echasse. (1). ...  (1) Echasse, nom que j'ai donné aux espèces de ce genre à cause de la longueur de leurs jambes.   **1. L'ECHASSE.  ...  HIMANTOPUS." (Brisson 1760): based on "Himantopus" of ancient and later authors, and Charadrius Himantopus Linnaeus, 1758; "Himantopus Brisson, Orn., 1760, 1, p. 46; 5, p. 33. Type, by tautonymy, Himantopus Brisson = Charadrius himantopus Linné." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 289).  The various allopatric subspecies of the Black-winged Stilt are each often treated as distinct and separate species (i.e. himantopus, leucocephalus, knudseni, mexicanus and melanurus).
Var. Himatopus.
Synon. Calobatus, Himantellus, Hypsibates, Macrotarsus.

himantopus
• Gr. ἱμαντοπους himantopous,  ἱμαντοποδος himantopodos  wading bird, spindle-shanks  < ἱμας himas, ἱμαντος himantos  strap, thong; πους pous, ποδος podos  foot; "TRINGA HIMANTOPUS, Nobis.   Bill much longer than the head, sub-arched; legs very long, toes semipalmated  ...  This new species, which I shot from a flock at Long Branch, New-Jersey, in the middle of July, is very remarkable for its anomalous characters.  It connects still more closely than the other Tringa with subarched bills, the two genera Numenius and Tringa, since to other common traits, it unites the semipalmated toes; indeed, instead of placing it at the head of Tringa, we should place it at the last of Numenius, was it not for its long, slender, and delicate legs and toes." (Bonaparte 1826) (Calidris).
• L. himantopus, himantopodis  wading bird now generally identified with the Black-winged Stilt  < Gr. ἱμαντοπους himantopous,  ἱμαντοποδος himantopodos  wading bird, spindle-shanks  < ἱμας himas, ἱμαντος himantos  strap, thong; πους pous, ποδος podos  foot; “The Legs and Thighs are of a wonderful length, very small and weak  ...  so that well and of right may it be called Himantopus, or Loripes, its Legs being soft and flexible like a thong or string” (Ray 1678); “The old name of himantopus is taken from Pliny: and, by an aukward metaphor, implies that the legs are as slender and pliant as if cut out of a thong of leather” (White 1789); "79. CHARADRIUS.  ...  Himantopus.  10. C. supra niger, subtus albus, rostro nigro capite longiore, pedibus rubris longissimis.  Charadrius autumnalis. Hasselq. iter. 253. n. 29.  Himantopus. Sibb. scot. . . t. 11. 13. Raj. av. 106. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 30. Gesn. avHabitat in Europa australiore." (Linnaeus 1758) (Himantopus).