Western Capercaillie / Tetrao urogallus

Western Capercaillie / Tetrao urogallus

Western Capercaillie

SCI Name:  Tetrao urogallus
Protonym:  Tetrao Urogallus Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.159
Category:  Galliformes / Phasianidae /
Taxonomy Code:  wescap1
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

TETRAO
(Tetraonidae; Ϯ Great Capercaillie T. urogallus) L. tetrao, tetraonis  gamebird, name given to both the Black Grouse and the Great Capercaillie  < Gr. τετραων tetraōn, τετραωνος tetraōnos  unidentified bird, perhaps a gamebird; "Tetrao **) Linn. (urogallus)  ...  **) Nomen Tetrao s. potius Tetarus (τεταρος) primum in scriptis Regis Ptolomæi Evergetis allatum est, qua de re Athenæus memorat (Lib. XIV, 654). Avis erat phasianina, colore splendidissima, apud Nomadas Asiæ vulgaris et ex Media Alexandriam allata, ubi in arce regia, ut ornamentum alebatur; verisimiliter Phasianus pictus L.  -  Deinde vero Tetraones Linneani, urogallus et tetrix, a Plinio "Tetraones" apellantur (X, 29)" (Sundevall 1873); "91. TETRAO.  Supercilia nuda, papillosa.  *Pedibus hirsutis." (Linnaeus 1758); "Tetrao Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 159. Type, by subsequent designation, Tetrao urogallus Linné. (Gray, List Gen. Bds., 1840, p. 62.)" (Peters 1934, II, 24). Linnaeus's Tetrao comprised thirteen species (T. Urogallus, T. Tetrix, T. canadensis, T. Lagopus, T. Phasianellus, T. Cupido, T. Bonasia, T. rufus, T. Perdix, T. virginianus, T. marilandicus, T. orientalis, T. Coturnix).
Var. Tetras, Tetra.
Synon. Capricalea, Grygallus, Lyrurus, Urogallus.

tetrao
Genus Tetrao Linnaeus, 1758, grouse.
● ex “Tinamou varié de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 828, and “perdrix Tetrao” of Boddaert 1783 (syn. Crypturellus variegatus).

urogallus
Partial homophonic rendering of German Auerhahn or Auerhenne mountain cock (cf. Gr. ουρα oura tail; L. gallus cock); "91. TETRAO.  ...  Urogallus.  1. T. pedibus hirsutis, rectricibus exterioribus subbrevioribus, axillis albis. Fn. svec. 166.  Urogallus s. Tetrao major. Gesn. av. 491. Aldr. orn. l. 13. c. 6. Will. orn. 123. t. 30. Raj. av. 53.  Muscovian. Alb. av. 2. p. 28. t. 29. 30.  Habitat in Europæ frigidæ pinetis paludosisExæstuat in arboribus, efflans tinnitu tamquam ecstasi corripitur." (Linnaeus 1758) (Tetrao).

Urogallus
(syn. Tetrao Ϯ Great Capercaillie T. urogallus) Specific name Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus, 1758; "*381. VROGALLVS. GESNER.  Supercilia papillosa ut in TETRAONE, sed Rostrum STRIGIS, margine inflexum; mandibula inferiore minima truncata. Nares plumis tectæ. Pedes lanati. Cauda longa" (Scopoli 1777) (Agassiz, 1842, writes that the generic term Urogallus is from L. urus  wild ox, aurochs, and gallus  cock).

SUBSPECIES

Western Capercaillie (cantabricus)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus cantabricus
cantabricus
L. Cantabricus of Cantabria.

Western Capercaillie (aquitanicus)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus
aquitanicus
L. Aquitanicus Aquitanian (Aquitania south-western Gaul = Aquitaine, France).

Western Capercaillie (crassirostris)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus crassirostris
crassirostra / crassirostre / crassirostris
L. crassus  thick, heavy; -rostris  -billed  < rostrum  beak.
● ex “Coucou à Gros Bec” of Levaillant 1806, pl. 214 (syn. Eudynamys scolopaceus).
● ex “Alouette à Gros Bec” of Levaillant 1806, pl. 193 (syn. Galerida magnirostris).
● ex “Thick-billed Grosbeak” of Latham 1783 (Oryzoborus).
● ex “Thick-billed Thrush” of Latham 1783 (‡syn. Turnagra capensis).

Western Capercaillie (urogallus)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus urogallus
urogallus
Partial homophonic rendering of German Auerhahn or Auerhenne mountain cock (cf. Gr. ουρα oura tail; L. gallus cock); "91. TETRAO.  ...  Urogallus.  1. T. pedibus hirsutis, rectricibus exterioribus subbrevioribus, axillis albis. Fn. svec. 166.  Urogallus s. Tetrao major. Gesn. av. 491. Aldr. orn. l. 13. c. 6. Will. orn. 123. t. 30. Raj. av. 53.  Muscovian. Alb. av. 2. p. 28. t. 29. 30.  Habitat in Europæ frigidæ pinetis paludosisExæstuat in arboribus, efflans tinnitu tamquam ecstasi corripitur." (Linnaeus 1758) (Tetrao).

Western Capercaillie (kureikensis)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus kureikensis
kureikensis
Kureika River, Yenessei Valley, Siberia.

Western Capercaillie (volgensis)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus volgensis
volgae / volgensis
Volga River, Russia.

Western Capercaillie (uralensis)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus uralensis
uralense / uralensis
Ural Mts. (traditionally the boundary between Europe and Asia).

Western Capercaillie (taczanowskii)
SCI Name: Tetrao urogallus taczanowskii
taczanowskia / taczanowskii / taczanowskius
Władysław Taczanowski (1819-1890) Polish zoologist, collector, Curator of Zoology, Warsaw University Mus., 1862-1890 (subsp. Asthenes flammulata, Atlapetes (ex Buarremon mystacalis Taczanowski, 1874), Cinclodes, syn. Columba rupestris, subsp. Euphonia chlorotica, syn. Garrulus glandarius brandtii, syn. Heliangelus clarisse, subsp. Icterus mesomelas, Leptopogon, Leucippus, syn. Limnodromus semipalmatus, syn. Locustella luteoventrisNothoprocta, Onychostruthus, subsp. Picumnus lafresnayi, Podiceps, subsp. Riparia riparia, Sicalis, subsp. Tetrao urogallus, syn. Thalurania furcata jelskii).