White-breasted Waterhen / Amaurornis phoenicurus

White-breasted Waterhen / Amaurornis phoenicurus

White-breasted Waterhen

SCI Name:  Amaurornis phoenicurus
Protonym:  Gallinula phoenicurus Indn.Zool. p.10 pl.9
Category:  Gruiformes / Rallidae /
Taxonomy Code:  whbwat1
Type Locality:  Ceylon.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1769
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

AMAURORNIS
(Rallidae; Philippine Bush-hen A. olivacea) Gr. αμαυρος amauros  dark; ορνις ornis, ορνιθος ornithos  bird; "Genera et Species typicae.  ...  *Amaurornis Rchb.  olivacea (Gallin. — Meyen). Ic. Av. t. 192. ic. 1112—13." (Reichenbach 1853); "Amaurornis Reichenbach, Nat. Syst. Vög. p. xxi, 1852 (1853).  Type (by original designation): Gallinula olivacea Meyen." (Mathews, 1927, Syst. Av. Austral., I, p. 95). 
Var. Amaurormis.   
Synon. Aenigmatolimnas, Erythra, Oenolimnas, Pisynolimnas.

PHOENICURUS
(Muscicapidae; Ϯ Common Redstart P. phoenicurus) L. phoenicurus  redstart  < Gr. φοινικουρος phoinikouros  redstart  < φοινιξ phoinix, φοινικος phoinikos  crimson, red; -ουρος -ouros -tailed   < ουρα  oura  tail (cf. specific name Motacilla phoenicurus Linnaeus, 1758); "SYLVIA PHOENICVRVS.  Phoenicurus Ruficilla?  Redstart, Redtail, or Shaketail." (T. Forster 1817); "Phoenicurus Forster, 1817, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, 16, p. 53. Type, by tautonymy, Motacilla phoenicurus Linnaeus." (Ripley in Peters 1964, X, 74). According to Aristotle, the Common Redstart changed into the European Robin during the winter, and some of the shared synonyms reflect this old folkloric wisdom.
Var. Phenicura, Phoenicura, Phaenicura, Phaenicurus.
Synon. Adelura, Chaimarrornis, Diplootocus, Dorisornis, Kawabitakia, Nymphaeus, Phaeca, Rhyacornis, Rhondella, Rubecula, Ruticilla, Torrentaria.
● (syn. Phaethon Ϯ Red-tailed Tropicbird P. rubricauda) Gr. φοινιξ phoinix, φοινικος phoinikos  red; ουρα oura  tail (cf. specific name Phaethon phoenicurus J. Gmelin, 1789 (= syn. Phaethon rubricauda)); "Subf. 7.  Phaetoninæ.  ...  19. Phœnicurus, Bp.   70 rubricauda, Bodd. (erubescens, Brandt.)" (Bonaparte 1855).

phoenicurus
L. phoenicurus  redstart  < Gr. φοινικουρος phoinikouros  redstart  < φοινιξ phoinix, φοινικος phoinikos  crimson, red; -ουρος -ouros -tailed   < ουρα  oura  tail.
● ex “Red-tailed Thrush” of Latham 1783 (?syn. Dessonornis caffer).
● "99. MOTACILLA.  ...  Phœnicurus.  21. M. gula nigra, abdomine rufo, capite dorsoque cano. Fn. svec. 2. 4.  Ruticilla. Will. orn. 159. Raj. av. 78. n. 5. Alb. av. I. p. 48. t. 50.  Phœnicurus media, penna caudæ subnigra. Frisch. av. t. 20. f. 3.  Habitat in Europa." (Linnaeus 1758) (Phoenicurus).

SUBSPECIES

White-breasted Waterhen (phoenicurus)
SCI Name: Amaurornis phoenicurus phoenicurus
PHOENICURUS
(Muscicapidae; Ϯ Common Redstart P. phoenicurus) L. phoenicurus  redstart  < Gr. φοινικουρος phoinikouros  redstart  < φοινιξ phoinix, φοινικος phoinikos  crimson, red; -ουρος -ouros -tailed   < ουρα  oura  tail (cf. specific name Motacilla phoenicurus Linnaeus, 1758); "SYLVIA PHOENICVRVS.  Phoenicurus Ruficilla?  Redstart, Redtail, or Shaketail." (T. Forster 1817); "Phoenicurus Forster, 1817, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Birds, 16, p. 53. Type, by tautonymy, Motacilla phoenicurus Linnaeus." (Ripley in Peters 1964, X, 74). According to Aristotle, the Common Redstart changed into the European Robin during the winter, and some of the shared synonyms reflect this old folkloric wisdom.
Var. Phenicura, Phoenicura, Phaenicura, Phaenicurus.
Synon. Adelura, Chaimarrornis, Diplootocus, Dorisornis, Kawabitakia, Nymphaeus, Phaeca, Rhyacornis, Rhondella, Rubecula, Ruticilla, Torrentaria.
● (syn. Phaethon Ϯ Red-tailed Tropicbird P. rubricauda) Gr. φοινιξ phoinix, φοινικος phoinikos  red; ουρα oura  tail (cf. specific name Phaethon phoenicurus J. Gmelin, 1789 (= syn. Phaethon rubricauda)); "Subf. 7.  Phaetoninæ.  ...  19. Phœnicurus, Bp.   70 rubricauda, Bodd. (erubescens, Brandt.)" (Bonaparte 1855).

White-breasted Waterhen (insularis)
SCI Name: Amaurornis phoenicurus insularis
insularis
L. insularis  of an island  < insula, insulae  island.
● Ceylon (= Sri Lanka) (syn. Accipiter badius, subsp. Chloropsis aurifrons, subsp. Dicrurus caerulescens, subsp. Prinia inornata).
● New Caledonia (syn. Accipiter fasciatus vigilax).
● Phu-Quoc I., Cochin China (=Vietnam) (subsp. Aethopyga siparaja).
● Andaman Is., Bay of Bengal (subsp. Amaurornis phoenicurus).
● Bahrain, Arabian Gulf (subsp. Ammomanes deserti)
● Erroneous TL. Madagascar (= Zanzibar) (subsp. Andropadus importunus).
● Santa Cruz I., Channel Is., California, USA (subsp. Aphelocoma californica, subsp. Eremophila alpestris).
● Rennell I., Solomon Is. (Aplonis).
● Jobi I. (= Japen = Yapen), New Guinea (Arses, subsp. Pachycephalopsis hattamensis).
● Sardinia (Bubo).
● Fernando Póo (= Bioko), Gulf of Guinea (syn. Campethera tullbergi, syn. Cinnyris chloropygius).
● Isla Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mexico (syn. Cathartes aura, subsp. Cyclarhis gujanensis).
● Aldabra, Indian Ocean (subsp. Centropus toulou).
● Sardinia (syn. Coccothraustes coccothraustes).
● Grand Cayman, Caribbean Sea (subsp. Columbina passerina).
● New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea (Corvus).
● Formosa/Taiwan (subsp. Dendrocopos leucotosMyophonus, syn. Garrulus bispecularis).
● Borneo (syn. Dicrurus paradiseus).
● Nicobar Is., Bay of Bengal (syn. Ducula aenea nicobarica).
● Corsica (syn. Emberiza calandra, syn. Saxicola rubicola).
● Socotra (subsp. Emberiza tahapisi, Passer).
● Weda Is., Halmahera, Indonesia (syn. Eos squamata).
● Tres Marías Is., Nayarit, Mexico (Forpus, subsp. Myadestes occidentalis, subsp. Nyctidromus albicollis, subsp. Pachyramphus aglaiae, subsp. Setophaga pitiayumi, syn. Zenaida asiatica).
● Lord Howe I., Tasman Sea (syn. Fregetta grallaria, ‡Gerygone).
● Rottnest I., Western Australia (syn. Gavicalis virescens).
● Meco I., Quintana Roo, Mexico (subsp. Habia fuscicauda).
● Ship I., off Gulfport, Mississippi, USA (syn. Hirundo rustica erythrogaster).
● Tobago (Hylophilus, subsp. Platyrinchus mystaceus, subsp. Psarocolius decumanus).
● Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, Mexico (Junco).
● Isla Margarita, Venezuela (syn. Leptotila verreauxi,  subsp. Quiscalus lugubris).
● New Providence, Bahamas (sym. Leuconotopicus villosus maynardi).
● King I., Bass Strait, Australia (syn. Melithreptus brevirostris).
● Kangean Is., Java Sea, Indonesia (subsp. Oriolus chinensis).
● Fergusson I., D'Entrecasteaux Is., Papua New Guinea (Otidiphaps).
● Mahé I., Seychelles (Otus).
● Kodiak I., Alaska, USA (subsp. Passerella unalaschcensis).
● Honshu, Japan (subsp. Periparus ater).
● Stewart I., New Zealand (syn. Poodytes punctatus).
● Henderson I., Pitcairn Group, Pacific Ocean (Ptilinopus).
● Naochow I., Kwangtung, China (syn. Pycnonotus aurigaster resurrectus).
● Banggai I., North Borneo (syn. Pycnonotus plumosus hachisukae).
● Madagascar (Sarothrura, subsp. Thalassornis leuconotus).
● Forsyth I., Bass Strait, Australia (syn. Sericornis frontalis).
● Grand Bahama I., Bahamas (Sitta).
● Trinidad (syn. Sporophila intermedia).
● Nias I., Sumatra (subsp. Terpsiphone affinis).
● Terangan I., Aru Is., Indonesia (syn. Todiramphus macleayii).
● Isla Socorro, Colima, Mexico (syn. Troglodytes sissonii).
● Erroneous TL. São Vicente, Cape Verde Is. (= St. Vincent, West Indies) (subsp. Tyto glaucops).
● Vancouver I., British Columbia, Canada (syn. Vireo huttoni).
● Stephens I., Cook Strait, New Zealand (‡syn. Xenicus lyalli).
● Curaçao, Dutch Antilles (subsp. Zonotrichia capensis).
● Tanegashima, south of Kyushu, Japan (subsp. Zosterops japonicus).

White-breasted Waterhen (midnicobarica)
SCI Name: Amaurornis phoenicurus midnicobarica
midnicobarica
Central Nicobar Is.

White-breasted Waterhen (leucomelana)
SCI Name: Amaurornis phoenicurus leucomelana
leucomelan / leucomelana / leucomelanos
Gr. λευκος leukos white; μελας melas, μελανος melanos black (cf. λευκομελας leukomelas grey).
● ex “Coloured Pheasant” of Latham 1787 (Lophura).