White-crested Guan / Penelope pileata

White-crested Guan / Penelope pileata

White-crested Guan

SCI Name:  Penelope pileata
Protonym:  Penelope pileata Isis 23 col.1109
Taxonomy:  Galliformes / Cracidae /
Taxonomy Code:  whcgua1
Type Locality:  State of Pard,, Brazil.
Publish Year:  1830
IUCN Status:  


(Cracidae; Ϯ Marail Guan P. marail) Probably arbitrary, from Gr. myth. Penelope, a Greek princess, daughter of Icarius and wife of Ulysses, King of Ithaca, and who spun a braided web or tapestry to deceive many importunate admirers during the long absence of her husband at the siege of Troy. She had promised to choose amongst them upon the completion of the tapestry, but every night unravelled the previous days labour! (cf. "LES GUANS ou JACOUS  ...  Celui de Pénélope qui leur a été imposé par Merrem, désignait, chez les grecs, une espèce de canard qui, disait-on, avait sauvé des eaux la femme d'Ulysse dans son enfance." (Cuvier 1816)). Teixeira 1995, suggested that the generic term is correctly named after Penelope, in allusion to the reticulated pattern on the breast and foreneck of many guans. Another source, citing Penelope’s promiscuity, identifies her web as the limb and facial tattooes worn by woodland revellers during orgies dedicated to the mountain goddess (Gr. πηνη pēnē  thread, web; ωπε ōpe  aspect, look).  Perhaps an allusion to the partial crest of the Marail Guan compared to the full crest of the Common Piping Guan Pipile pipile described (Weishaubiger YakuPenelope leucolophos) in the pages and plate XII following (i.e. L. pene  almost, nearly; Gr. λοφος lophos  crest); "GRÜNGLÄNZENDEN YAKU  ...  Der Kopf ist klein, und mit einer niedrigen Holle (crista) längerer Federn bekleidet. Nach EDWARDS soll man sie auch ohne Holle antreffen, wodurch seiner Meynung nach die Männchen von dem Weibchen sich unterscheiden  ...  [plate XI] Grünglänzender Yaku. Penelope Jacupema" (Merrem 1786); "Penelope Merrem, Av. rar. Icon. et Descr., 1786, fasc. 2, p. 39. Type, by subsequent designation, Penelope marail Gmelin = Penelope iacupema Merrem = Phasianus marail P. L. S. Müller. (Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 214.)" (Peters 1934, II, 12).
Var. PonolopePenelophe.
Synon. GanixGouan, Salpiza, Stegnolaema.
● (syn. Aythya Ϯ Common Pochard A. ferina) Gr. πηνελοψ pēnelops, πηνελοπος pēnelopos  type of duck; "19. LE MILLOUIN.  ...  PENELOPE" (Brisson 1760): based on "Penelops primus" of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, "Penelope" of Jonston 1650-1653 and Charleton 1668, and Anas ferina Linnaeus, 1758.

L. penelops, penelopis  type of duck  < Gr. πηνελοψ pēnelops, πηνελοπος pēnelopos  type of duck with purple stripes which was said to have rescued and fed Penelope after her parents had thrown her into the sea  < πηνη pēnē  braid, woof; ωψ ōps, ωπος ōpos  appearance; "Penelopes  ...  Judging from p. 148 of the original work the singular of this word is 'Penelops,' and it is probably by mistake that the Wigeon has been called Mareca penelope" (Evans 1903);“The name penelope was given to the Widgeon because of its supposed conjugal fidelity” (Phillips 1923); "61. ANAS.  ...  Penelope.  24. A. cauda acutiuscula subtus nigra, capite brunneo, fronte alba. Fn. svec. 105.  Penelope. Gesn. av. 108. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 38. Jonst. av. l. 49. Will. orn. 288. t. 72. Raj. av. 146.  Anas fistularis. Alb. av. 2. p. 88. t. 99.  Habitat in Europæ maritimis & paludibus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Mareca).

pileata / pileatum / pileatus
L. pileatus  capped  < pileus  felt-cap.
● ex “Petit Fouquet des Philippines” of Sonnerat 1782 (syn. Anous stolidus).
● ex “Pigeon verd à tête grise d’Antigue” of Sonnerat 1776 (syn. Chalcophaps indica).
● ex “Souï” or “Petit Tinamou de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 829 (syn. Crypturellus soui).
● ex “Gobe-mouche olive de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 574, fig. 2 (unident;?Empidonax sp., ?Myiobius sp.).
● ex “Martin- pêcheur de la Chine” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 673, “Martin-pêcheur à coïffe noir” of de Buffon 1770-1785, and “Black-capped Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (Halcyon).
● "54. PICUS.  ...  pileatus.  3. P. niger, capite cristato rubro, temporibus alisque albis maculis.  Picus niger maximus, capite rubro. Catesb. car. 2. p. 17. t. 17. Kalm. itin. 2. p. 271.  Ipecu. Marcgr. bras. 207.  Habitat in America.  Differt a P. cornicino, quod tempora alba; maculæ aliquot parvæ in alis albæ; caput magis late coccineum." (Linnaeus 1758) (Hylatomus).
● ex “Tangara à coëffe noire de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 720, fig. 2 (Nemosia).
● ex “Tangara à coëffe noire de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 720, fig. 2, “Coiffe noire” of de B uffon 1770-1783, and “Hooded Tanager” of Latham 1783 (syn. Nemosia pileata).
● ex “Black-hooded Wheat-ear” of Latham 1783 (Oenanthe).
● ex “Héron blanc huppé de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 907, and “Héron blanc” of de Buffon 1770-1786 (Pilherodius).
● ex “Perruche à tête noire de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 744, “Caïca” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Hooded Parrot” of Latham 1781 (syn. Pionopsitta caica).
● ex “Black-capped Shrike” of Latham 1787 (syn. Sakesphorus canadensis).
● ex “Pluvier du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, “Pluvier coiffé” of de Buffon 1770-1786, and “Hooded Plover” of Latham 1785 (syn. Sarciophorus tectus).
● ex “Perruche de l’isle de Luçon” of Sonnerat 1776 (syn. Tanygnathus lucionensis).
● ex “Bruant du cap de Bonne-Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 386, fig. 2, and “Bonjour-Commandeur” of de Buffon 1770-1785 (syn. Zonotrichia capensis).

(syn. Biziura Ϯ Musk Duck B. lobata) L. pileatus  capped  < pileus  felt-cap; "GENUS BIZIURA. — Leach.  WATTLE-DUCKS.  Hydrobates— Temminck.  Pileata— Brown.  ...  The B. lobata, or Wattle-Duck, is the only species of this genus known.  It is a native of Australia, locating on rivers and pools, and is never known to visit the sea.  They universally associate in pairs.  They dive with much rapidity, and are very difficult to shoot.  Nothing is known of their habits." (T. Brown 1845).