American Kestrel / Falco sparverius

American Kestrel / Falco sparverius

American Kestrel

SCI Name:  Falco sparverius
Protonym:  Falco sparverius Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.90
Category:  Falconiformes / Falconidae /
Taxonomy Code:  amekes
Type Locality:  America = South Carolina ex Catesby.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

FALCO
(Falconidae; Eurasian Hobby F. subbuteo) Late L. falco, falconis  falcon  < L. flectere  to curve (alluding to the curved talons) (cf. Late Gr. φαλκων phalkōn, φαλκωνος phalkōnos  falcon). "41. FALCO.  Rostrum aduncum, basi cera instructum.  Caput pennis arcte tectum.  Lingua bifida.  ...  Aquilæ dictæ fuere Falcones majores, pedibus hirsutis.  ...  Falconaria avs ad aucupium & venatum instruendi Falcones transiit in Scientiam; inter auctores plurimos eminet d'Esparon Falconaria. Francs. 1617. quart." (Linnaeus 1758). This genus is the second diagnosed in avian nomenclature. "Falco Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88.  Type, by subsequent designation, Falco subbuteo Linné. (A. O. U. Committee, 1886.)" (Peters, 1931, I, 284); "Falco Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 88, 1758—type, by subs. desig. (Brit. Orn. Un-Comm., List of British Birds, p. 149, 1915),2 Falco Subbuteo Linnaeus.   ...   2 The A. O. U. Committee (1886), though generally credited with designating the genotype, unfortunately failed to do so, but merely determined Falco subbuteo as type by employing the inadmissable method of elimination." (Hellmay & Conover, 1949, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (4), p. 293); "Falco Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 88. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Gen. Birds, p. 3), "F. peregrinus L." = Falco peregrinus Tunstall." (Amadon in Peters, 1979, I, 2nd ed., p. 400); "FALCO Linnaeus, 1758  M - Falco subbuteo Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (A.O.U., 1886, Check List, 2nd ed., p. 193)." (Dickinson and Remsen (eds.), H. & M. Complete Checklist, 4th ed., 2013, 1 (Non-passerines), p. 349).  Linnaeus's Falco comprised twenty-six species (F. Melanætus, F. Chrysaëtus, F. fulvus, F. canadensis, F. rusticolus, F. barbarus, F. cærulescens, F. Albicilla, F. Pygargus, F. Milvus, F. forficatus, F. gentilis, F. Subbuteo, F. Buteo, F. Tinnunculus, F. sufflator, F. cachinnans, F. sparverius, F. columbarius, F. Lanarius, F. Haliætus, F. Gyrfalco, F. apivorus, F. æruginosus, F. palumbarius, F. Nisus).
Synon. AegypiusAesalonArchifalco, Asturaetus, CataractesCenchris, Cerchneis, Chiquera, ConfusianaCuvieriaDendrofalco, Dissodectes, DorcadotheraErythropus, Eufalco, Euhierax, Falcolus, Falcula, Gennadas, Gennaia, Gyrfalco, Harpe, Hierax, Hierofalco, Hypotriorchis, Ieracidea, Lanarius, Lithofalco, Megacerchneis, Neofalco, Nesierax, Notofalco, Palifalco, Pannychistes, Planofalco, Plioaetus, Pnigohierax, Poecilornis, Pontotriorchis, Rhynchodon, Rhynchofalco, Tichornis, Tinnunculus, Tolmerus, Turumtia.

falco
Late L. falco, falconis  falcon  < L. flectere  to curve; the “Sekretär” of Gravenhorst 1817 (syn. Sagittarius serpentarius).

sparverius
Med. L. sparverius  sparrowhawk.
● "41. FALCO.  ...  sparverius.  18. F. cera lutea, capite fusco, vertice abdomineque rubro, alis cærulescentibus.  Accipiter minor. Catesb. carol. I. p. 5. t. 5.  Habitat in America." (Linnaeus 1758) (Falco).

Sparvius
French Épervier sparrowhawk  < Med. L. sparverius  sparrowhawk.
• (Accipitridae; syn. Accipiter Northern Goshawk A. gentilis) "ÉPERVIER, SparviusFalco, Linn. Gm. Lath.  Bec court, incliné dès la base, convexe en dessus. - Narines un peu ovales. - Tarses alongés, plus ou moins grêles. - Doigts longs, les extérieurs unis à la base par une membrane.  2 sect.  Esp. Autour. - Épervier, Buff." (Vieillot 1816); "Sparvius Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 24.  Type, by subsequent designation (G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 4), "Autour" de Buffon = Falco palumbarius Linnaeus, 1758 = Falco gentilis Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2021).
Var. Sparverius, Spervarius, Sparverus.
• (Accipitridae; syn. Accipiter † Spot-tailed Goshawk A. trinotatus) "84. SPARVIUS, Bp. (Eusparvius!)    a. Sparvius, Bp.  -  248. trinotatus, Temm.  -  249. griseiceps, Temm.  -  250. hyogaster, Mull. (rufitorques, Peale.) Voy. P. sud. t. 22.     b. Tachyspizia, Kaup.  -  251. soloensis, Horsf.     c. Scelospizia, Kaup.  -  252. franciscæ, Smith" (Bonaparte 1854); "Sparvius Bonaparte, 1854, Rev. Mag. Zoologie, sér. 2, VI, p. 538 (not of Vieillot, 1816).  Type, here fixed by subsequent designation, Accipiter trinotatus Temminck (i.e. Bonaparte, 1850, ex Temminck)." (JAJ 2021).

SUBSPECIES

American Kestrel (Northern)
SCI Name: Falco sparverius [sparverius Group]
FALCO
(Falconidae; Eurasian Hobby F. subbuteo) Late L. falco, falconis  falcon  < L. flectere  to curve (alluding to the curved talons) (cf. Late Gr. φαλκων phalkōn, φαλκωνος phalkōnos  falcon). "41. FALCO.  Rostrum aduncum, basi cera instructum.  Caput pennis arcte tectum.  Lingua bifida.  ...  Aquilæ dictæ fuere Falcones majores, pedibus hirsutis.  ...  Falconaria avs ad aucupium & venatum instruendi Falcones transiit in Scientiam; inter auctores plurimos eminet d'Esparon Falconaria. Francs. 1617. quart." (Linnaeus 1758). This genus is the second diagnosed in avian nomenclature. "Falco Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88.  Type, by subsequent designation, Falco subbuteo Linné. (A. O. U. Committee, 1886.)" (Peters, 1931, I, 284); "Falco Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 88, 1758—type, by subs. desig. (Brit. Orn. Un-Comm., List of British Birds, p. 149, 1915),2 Falco Subbuteo Linnaeus.   ...   2 The A. O. U. Committee (1886), though generally credited with designating the genotype, unfortunately failed to do so, but merely determined Falco subbuteo as type by employing the inadmissable method of elimination." (Hellmay & Conover, 1949, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (4), p. 293); "Falco Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 88. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Gen. Birds, p. 3), "F. peregrinus L." = Falco peregrinus Tunstall." (Amadon in Peters, 1979, I, 2nd ed., p. 400); "FALCO Linnaeus, 1758  M - Falco subbuteo Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (A.O.U., 1886, Check List, 2nd ed., p. 193)." (Dickinson and Remsen (eds.), H. & M. Complete Checklist, 4th ed., 2013, 1 (Non-passerines), p. 349).  Linnaeus's Falco comprised twenty-six species (F. Melanætus, F. Chrysaëtus, F. fulvus, F. canadensis, F. rusticolus, F. barbarus, F. cærulescens, F. Albicilla, F. Pygargus, F. Milvus, F. forficatus, F. gentilis, F. Subbuteo, F. Buteo, F. Tinnunculus, F. sufflator, F. cachinnans, F. sparverius, F. columbarius, F. Lanarius, F. Haliætus, F. Gyrfalco, F. apivorus, F. æruginosus, F. palumbarius, F. Nisus).
Synon. AegypiusAesalonArchifalco, Asturaetus, CataractesCenchris, Cerchneis, Chiquera, ConfusianaCuvieriaDendrofalco, Dissodectes, DorcadotheraErythropus, Eufalco, Euhierax, Falcolus, Falcula, Gennadas, Gennaia, Gyrfalco, Harpe, Hierax, Hierofalco, Hypotriorchis, Ieracidea, Lanarius, Lithofalco, Megacerchneis, Neofalco, Nesierax, Notofalco, Palifalco, Pannychistes, Planofalco, Plioaetus, Pnigohierax, Poecilornis, Pontotriorchis, Rhynchodon, Rhynchofalco, Tichornis, Tinnunculus, Tolmerus, Turumtia.

American Kestrel (Southeastern)
SCI Name: Falco sparverius paulus
paulus
L. paulus  little, small.

American Kestrel (Eastern Caribbean)
SCI Name: Falco sparverius caribaearum
caribaea / caribaearum / caribaeus / caribbaea / caribbaeus / caribbeus / caribboeus / caribeus / cariboea
Caribbean Sea (named after the Carib, an Amerindian people of the Lesser Antilles and northern South America).
● Antilles (= Guadeloupe); ex “Esmerillon Gry-Gry” of Dutertre 1667, and “Esmerillon des Antilles” of Brisson 1760 (subsp. Falco sparverius).
● Caribbean Is.; ex “Pigeon à queue annelée de la Jamaïque” of Brisson 1760 (Patagioenas).

American Kestrel (Hispaniolan)
SCI Name: Falco sparverius dominicensis
dominicensis / dominicus
Santo Domingo or San Domingo (= Hispaniola), West Indies.
● Erroneous TL San Domingo (= Puerto Rico); ex “Perroquet de Saint-Domingue” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 792, “Papegai à bandeau rouge” of de Buffon 12770-1783, and “Red-banded Parrot” of Latham 1781 (syn. Amazona vittata).
● ex “Colibry de S. Domingue” of Brisson 1760 (Anthracothorax).
● ex “Alouette de mer de S. Domingue” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Calidris melanotos).
● Erroneous TL. Santo Domingo (= South Africa) (syn. Caprimulgus pectoralis).
● ex “Tangara de S. Domingue” of Brisson 1760, and “Tangara de Saint-Domingue” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 156, fig. 2 (Dulus).
● ex “Esmerillon de S. Domingue” of Brisson 1760, and “St.-Domingo Falcon” of Latham 1781 (subsp. Falco sparverius).
● ex “Carouge de S. Domingue” of Brisson 1760 (Icterus).
● Erroneous TL. San Domingo (= East Indies); “The oldest name for this bird is, no doubt, Turdus dominicus of P. L. S. Müller ...a gentleman who brought out an edition of Linnæus’s ‘Systema Naturae’ and included species published since 1766 ...It is a great question whether this author is entitled to recognition at the hands of ornithologists, as he was apparently colour-blind – witness his bestowing the name of viridis upon the rufous-and-grey Terpsiphone of South Africa, and castanea upon the totally black Philepitta jala of Madagascar! In the case of Lalage terat he has committed himself greatly, as he has not noticed the numbers of the figures on D’Aubenton’s plate [pl. 273], and has named the upper bird (“Merle des Indes orientales”) dominica, instead of the under figure, which represents a bird from San Domingo [“Merle de Saint-Domingue”]; to this he has given the name of indicus” (Sharpe 1879) (syn Lalage nigra).
● ex “Merle de Saint-Domingue” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Mimus polyglottos orpheus).
● ex “Chilcanauhtli” of Hernandez 1651, and “Querquedula dominicensis” or “Sarcelle de S. Domingue” of Brisson 1760 (Nomonyx).
● ex “Hirondelle de S. Domingue” of Brisson 1760, and “Hirondelle d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 545, fig. 1 (Progne).
● ex “Chouette” or “Grande Chevêche de St. Domingue” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Saint Domingo Owl” of Latham 1785 (syn. Speotyto cunicularia).
● Erroneous TL San Domingo (?= Jamaica); ex “Tourterelle de Saint-Domingue” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 487 (unident.; ?Starnoenas).
● ex "Grèbe de rivière de S. Domingue" of Brisson 1760 (Tachybaptus).
● ex “Tyran de Sainte Domingue” of Brisson 1760, and “Saint Domingo Tyrant” of Latham 1781 (Tyrannus).

American Kestrel (Cuban)
SCI Name: Falco sparverius sparverioides
sparverioides
● Specific name Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758; Gr. -οιδης -oidēs  resembling; "4.  FALCO SPARVERIOIDES.  ...  In this bird the following distinguishing marks may be noticed as separating it from the Falco Sparverius.  The head has not the bay or rufous spot on the vertex; while the breast, abdomen, and under parts are strongly and entirely rufous.  ...  Our species appears somewhat smaller than the generality of those birds which are represented as belonging to the true F. Sparverius." (Vigors 1827) (subsp. Falco sparverius).
● Med. L. sparverius  sparrowhawk; Gr. -οιδης -oidēs  resembling; "CUCULUS SPARVERIOÏDES.  Cuc. corpore supra brunnescenti-cinereo, capite plumbeo-cinereo; subtus albo, collo rufo striato, abdomine brunneo fasciato, pectore rufo tincto; remigibus externe leviter rufo maculatis; rectricibus fasciis brunneis latis rufo marginatis quatuor notatis." (Vigors 1831) (Hierococcyx).

American Kestrel (South American)
SCI Name: Falco sparverius [cinnamominus Group]
FALCO
(Falconidae; Eurasian Hobby F. subbuteo) Late L. falco, falconis  falcon  < L. flectere  to curve (alluding to the curved talons) (cf. Late Gr. φαλκων phalkōn, φαλκωνος phalkōnos  falcon). "41. FALCO.  Rostrum aduncum, basi cera instructum.  Caput pennis arcte tectum.  Lingua bifida.  ...  Aquilæ dictæ fuere Falcones majores, pedibus hirsutis.  ...  Falconaria avs ad aucupium & venatum instruendi Falcones transiit in Scientiam; inter auctores plurimos eminet d'Esparon Falconaria. Francs. 1617. quart." (Linnaeus 1758). This genus is the second diagnosed in avian nomenclature. "Falco Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 88.  Type, by subsequent designation, Falco subbuteo Linné. (A. O. U. Committee, 1886.)" (Peters, 1931, I, 284); "Falco Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., 1, p. 88, 1758—type, by subs. desig. (Brit. Orn. Un-Comm., List of British Birds, p. 149, 1915),2 Falco Subbuteo Linnaeus.   ...   2 The A. O. U. Committee (1886), though generally credited with designating the genotype, unfortunately failed to do so, but merely determined Falco subbuteo as type by employing the inadmissable method of elimination." (Hellmay & Conover, 1949, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (4), p. 293); "Falco Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 88. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Gen. Birds, p. 3), "F. peregrinus L." = Falco peregrinus Tunstall." (Amadon in Peters, 1979, I, 2nd ed., p. 400); "FALCO Linnaeus, 1758  M - Falco subbuteo Linnaeus, 1758; type by subsequent designation (A.O.U., 1886, Check List, 2nd ed., p. 193)." (Dickinson and Remsen (eds.), H. & M. Complete Checklist, 4th ed., 2013, 1 (Non-passerines), p. 349).  Linnaeus's Falco comprised twenty-six species (F. Melanætus, F. Chrysaëtus, F. fulvus, F. canadensis, F. rusticolus, F. barbarus, F. cærulescens, F. Albicilla, F. Pygargus, F. Milvus, F. forficatus, F. gentilis, F. Subbuteo, F. Buteo, F. Tinnunculus, F. sufflator, F. cachinnans, F. sparverius, F. columbarius, F. Lanarius, F. Haliætus, F. Gyrfalco, F. apivorus, F. æruginosus, F. palumbarius, F. Nisus).
Synon. AegypiusAesalonArchifalco, Asturaetus, CataractesCenchris, Cerchneis, Chiquera, ConfusianaCuvieriaDendrofalco, Dissodectes, DorcadotheraErythropus, Eufalco, Euhierax, Falcolus, Falcula, Gennadas, Gennaia, Gyrfalco, Harpe, Hierax, Hierofalco, Hypotriorchis, Ieracidea, Lanarius, Lithofalco, Megacerchneis, Neofalco, Nesierax, Notofalco, Palifalco, Pannychistes, Planofalco, Plioaetus, Pnigohierax, Poecilornis, Pontotriorchis, Rhynchodon, Rhynchofalco, Tichornis, Tinnunculus, Tolmerus, Turumtia.

American Kestrel (Juan Fernandez)
SCI Name: Falco sparverius fernandensis
fernandensis / fernandeziana / fernandezianus
Juan Fernández Is., Pacific Ocean.