Asian Glossy Starling / Aplonis panayensis

Asian Glossy Starling / Aplonis panayensis

Asian Glossy Starling

SCI Name:  Aplonis panayensis
Protonym:  (Muscicapa panayensis) Del.Flor.Faun.Insubr. 2 p.96
Taxonomy:  Passeriformes / Sturnidae /
Taxonomy Code:  asgsta1
Type Locality:  [Philippines].
Publish Year:  1786
IUCN Status:  


(Sturnidae; Ϯ Norfolk Starling A. fusca) Gr. ἁπλοος haploos  simple, plain; ορνις ornis, ορνιθος ornithos  bird; “AT a meeting at the Society's Rooms, Leicester Square, Mr. Gould, after making some remarks on various birds which were on the table, entered into a description of a new genus of birds, for which he proposed the name of Aplornis, on account of its simple structure. This genus, Mr. Gould observed, partakes of the characters of the genera Lamprotornis, Lanius, and Turdus; we will, however, endeavour to give an idea of of its distinguishing characters by comparing it with with the genus Lamprotornis. When thus compared, Mr. G. remarked that the species of Aplornis are altogether of a more robust form: the beak, which is distinctly notched, the wings, the legs, and the tail, are shorter in proportion; the latter is slightly forked. It may also be distinguished by the want of the splendid colouring so remarkable in Lamprotornis, all the species of which, it will be remembered, are of a beautiful rich green colour, with a satin-like gloss. There were two species of this new genus on the table, both belonging to the society; one from New Holland, and the other from the Friendly Islands.” (Gould, 1836, The Analyst, XVII, p. 152); "Mr. Gould exhibited specimens of two new species of Birds from the Friendly Islands and New Holland, of which he proposed to form a genus. He stated them to approximate, in his opinion, in nearly an equal degree to the genera Lanius, Turdus, and Lamprotornis; but believed that they might with propriety be arranged among the Thrushes. Their characters were given as follows:  APLONIS.  ...   In both species the feathers of the head are lanceolate; and the general plumage above has a slight glossy hue, especially on the head and back of the neck" (Gould, 1836, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, IV, p. 73); "APLONIS  ...  According to Mathews (Ibis, 1942, p. 342) this name, spelled Aplornis, was first proposed in the "Analyst" for Oct. 1, 1836 [not seen], by an anonymous reviewer of Gould's forthcoming description. Even if this citation must stand, the spelling Aplonis may be retained on the ground that Aplornis was a slip of the pen for Aplonis. Gould used the latter spelling in all his publications. He treated the genus as feminine and I have followed this usage." (Amadon in Peters 1962, XV, 75); "APLONIS Gould, 1836 F — Aplonis fusca Gould, 1836; type by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, A List of the Genera of Birds, p. 40)." (Dickinson & Christidis (eds.), H. & M. Complete Checklist, 4th ed., 2014, 2 (Passerines), p. 581). Bruce & McAllan 1990, state that Gould’s description of Aplornis in The Analyst was published about two weeks before his description of Aplonis in the Proceedings (see above). They recommend the use of Aplornis (“has been used at least three times in the last 50 years”), but, following Schodde et al. 2007, and by reason of recent majority usage (e.g., Mayr 1941, Baker 1951, Ripley 1961, Mayr & Greenway (ed.) 1962, Rand & Gilliard 1967, Ali & Ripley 1972, Schodde 1975, White & Bruce 1986, Sibley & Monroe 1990, Christidis & Boles 1994, Feare & Craig 1998, Mayr & Diamond, 2001, Dickinson (ed.) 2003, Higgins et al. (eds.) 2006b, Dickinson & Christidis (eds.) 2014, Winkler et al. 2015, Beehler & Pratt 2016, del Hoyo & Collar 2016, Thibault & Cibois 2017), in the interests of stability it is better to retain Aplonis (contra Christidis & Boles 2008). It is astonishing that such a simple name, of obvious etymons, should have caused this turmoil in the rarefied world of nomenclature.  Beehler & Pratt 2016 state that the generic spelling Aplonis is now conserved (ICZN Opinion 2285).
Var. Aplornis.
Synon. Calornis, Kittlitzia, Lamprocorax, Macruropsar, Metallopsar, Psaroides, Rhinopsar, Santaplonis, Sturnoides.

panaya / panayana / panayanus / panayensis / panayus
Panay I., Philippines.
● ex “Petit Merle” or “Musicien de l’Île de Panay” of Sonnerat 1776 (Aplonis).
● Erroneous TL. Panay (= Gamtoos, South Africa); ex “Coliou de l’île de Panay” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and Sonnerat 1776, and “Panayan Coly” of Latham 1783 (syn. Colius striatus).
● ex “Coucou tacheté de l’île de Panay” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Panayan spotted Cuckow” of Latham 1782 (syn. Eudynamys scolopaceus mindanensis).
● Erroneous TL. Panay (= Gamtoos, South Africa); ex "Veuve en feu" and "Veuve à poitrine rouge" of de Buffon 1770-1783, "Veuve de l'Île de Panay" of Sonnerat 1776, and "Panayan Bunting" of Latham 1783 (syn. Euplectes ardens).
● ex “Hirondelle de Mer de l’Île de Panay” of Sonnerat 1776 (syn. Onychoprion anaethetus).


Asian Glossy Starling (affinis)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis affinis
affinae / affine / affinis
L. adfinis or affinis  related, allied, neighbourly  < ad  towards; finis  end, boundary.  Over 85 forms share these specific epithets, which indicate relationship or similarity (not necessarily to a currently recognised congeneric species).  Some descriptions contain no information as to the supposed related species (e.g., Apus (cf. “neighbouring, in reference to its habit of br[eeding] in close association with man” (Hockey et al. 2005)), Certhia, Coracias), some have subsequently been identified as hybrids (e.g., Ramphocelus affinis Lesson, 1840 = R. dimidiatus x R. icteronotus), and a few refer to allied taxa I have yet to identify.  A selection of further examples follows.
● "Calornis affinis, A. Hay.   This differs from the Malayan C. cantor [=syn. Aplonis panayensis] in its larger size.  ...  C. affinis inhabits Tipperah, Arracan, Tenasserim (?), and the Nicobar Islands: while C. cantor is common at Malacca." (Blyth 1846) (subsp. Aplonis panayensis).
● "Sp. 13.  Aegotheles affinis, nov. sp.  ...  Questa specie somiglia all' A. novae-hollandiae [= syn. A. cristatus] più che non a qualunque altra specie  ...  Pel colore della coda l' A. affinis somiglia all' A. bennettii, Salvad., ma ne differisce pel colore rossigno delle parti sopra indicate e per le piume del sottocoda senza macchie."(Salvadori 1875) (Aegotheles).
● "Spec. 1.  Cinnyris affinis mihi.  ...  Chess Javanis.  The general description of the Certhia olivacea, Linn. Syst. i. p. 185. 5, a native of Madagascar [= Zosterops olivaceus], applies to this bird; but our species exceeds the former three inches in length, and it wants the white orbits."(Horsfield 1822) (Arachnothera).
● "FULIGULA AFFINIS.  Fu.—Precedenti [Fuligula MarillaAythya marila] similis, sed rostro breviore et ungue angustiore armato.  AMERICAN SCAUP.  ...  The above bird may be distinguished from the preceding in both sexes by the following comparative marks: total length less; bill shorter and not so broad; nail much narrower, and not so much rounded at its sides; tarsi shorter.  ...  This is another bird of which we have entertained considerable doubts as to the propriety of making into a species; the above distinctions, however, appear through all the specimens we have examined to be constant." (Eyton 1838) (Aythya).
● "Batrachostomus affinis, nobis, n. s.  Very similar to B. javensis, in the plumage figured by Dr. Horsfield (and which is considered to be the young dress of Podargus auritus, Tem.), but smaller, with no white spots on the wing, nor pale spot-like bands on the tertiaries and caudal feathers; but the former are uniformly freckled over with dusky specks, and the latter present a series of obscure freckled bands, seen best at a little distance: throat and breast plain rufous, with a few white feathers having a subterminal dusky border on the fore-neck and sides of the breast only.  Rest as in B. javensis, juv.  ...  This is the small Malayan species which I formerly considered might be Podargus stellatus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1837, p. 43: but it does not accord with the description of that species, and its dimensions are rather superior." (Blyth 1847) (Batrachostomus).
● "*CLIMACTERIS ERYTHROPS, Gould, var.?  (CL. AFFINIS, nobis, n. s. ?)  Like CL. ERYTHROPS, but with slight pale non-rufous supercilia, which are not conspicuously noticeable: throat dull whitish, passing to greyish on breast, and a small central ferruginous spot at base of throat: ear-coverts pale, streaked.  Specimen doubtless of the female sex." (Blyth 1863) (Climacteris).
● "Another small dark Collocalia is common.  Col. Tytler has no specimens of C. linchi (C. fuciphaga, auct.) with which to compare his specimens, but from recollection thinks his bird is distinct.  He therefore provisionally calls it  15.  COLLOCALIA AFFINIS, Tytler, sp. nov. ?  Small Edible-nest Swiftlet.  ...  The nest of this species in Col. Tytler's collection resembles that of C. nidifica [= syn. Aerodramus fuciphagus inexpectatus], but is considerably smaller and perhaps whiter, on which account it is more valued by the Burmese and others, who collect both kinds for the Chinese and Penang markets." (Beavan 1867) (subsp. Collocalia esculenta).
● "MYIOLESTES AFFINIS, G. R. Gr.   It is like the Myiolestes aruensis [= subsp. Colluricincla megarhyncha] on the upper surface, but the head has a slight tinge of grey; beneath, the body pale yellowish fuscous; throat slightly varied with white.  It is rather smaller in its general measurements.   Hab. Gagie." (G. Gray 1862) (subsp. Colluricincla megarhyncha).
● "1) Die verwandte Krähe, Corvus affinis, Br.   Größe und Gestalt unserer Rabenkrähe mit einem Kolkraben-gefieder.  Ich bin überzeugt, die gerupften australischen Vögel dieser Art werde man von unsern gerupften Rabenkräben nicht unterscheiden können." (Brehm 1845) (syn. Corvus coronoides).
● "Cyanocorax affinis.  ...  So sehr diese Art der vorhergehenden [Cyanocorax Diesingii = subsp. C. chrysops] gleicht, so unterscheidet sie sich doch sogleich durch ihre bedeutendere Grösse, durch breiteren, weniger zusammengedrückten Schnabel, weniger reiche Kopffedern und durch in manchen Punkten abweichende Färbung." (von Pelzeln 1856) (Cyanocorax).
● "Cymbirhynchus was separated by Mr. Vigors on account of the forward position of the nostrils and some other particulars; and Mr. Swainson lays much stress upon the vertical depth of its bill, which certainly is a marked feature in the common Malayan and Tenasserim species (C. nasutus) [= syn. C. macrorhynchos]; but there is a very closely allied species in Arracan, which, until I had obtained a good series of both, I declined to venture on distinguishing, but which I shall now designate  C. affinis, nobis." (Blyth 1846) (Cymbirhynchus).
● "H. AFFINIS G. R. Gray.  Mas.  Præcedenti [Hapalophus Cubla = Dryoscopus cubla] similis, sed rostro capitis fere longitudine; alarum tectricibus concoloribus; caudæ plumis remigibusque leviter albomarginatis." (G. Gray 1837) (subsp. Dryoscopus cubla).
● "Emberiza xanthogastra P. Würt., Icon. No. 36.  halte ich für ein intensiv gefärbtes Exemplar der Fringillaria flavigastra.  Hierher gehören auch Megalotis quinquevittatus, Emberiza albicollis und E. affinis der Sammlung von Mergentheim.  E. albicollis zeigt ein deutliches weisses Hinterhalsband; bei E. affinis fehlen die weissen Flügelbinden." (von Heuglin 1867) (Emberiza).
● "9.  Tyrannula affinis.  ...  Maritime parts of Mexico.   10. Tyrannula obscura.  Muscicapa querulæ? [= syn. Contopus virens]  Vieil. Ois. de l'Am. pl. 39.  ...  Mexico.  Rather larger than the last." (Swainson 1827) (Empidonax).
● "9º Tanagra (aglaia) diaconus, Less. [= syn. Tangara episcopus cana]  ...  Hab. Realejo.   10º Tanagra (Euphonia) affinis, Less.  ...  Hab. Realejo." (Lesson 1842) (Euphonia).
● "6. Geococcyx affinis, m.  Differt a G. viatico, Licht [= Cuculus viaticus = syn. G. californianus]. cui primo adspectu simillimus 1. Plumis corporis superioris et rectricibus intermediis omnino magis cupreo-brunneis  ...  2. Corpore subtus toto fulvescente-ochraceo, pectore maculis nonnullis longitudinalibus nigris sparsim notato  ...  3. Statura minore; rostro et tarsis multo brevioribus, cauda pro mole longiore." (Hartlaub 1844) (syn. Geococcyx velox).
● "206. — Eriocnemis affinis  ELLIOT.  TACZ., P. Z. S., 1882, p. 39." (Taczanowski 1884); "Perhaps a lapsus for assimilis but description based on specimens collected in 1880 at Ray-Urmaña, Chirimoto, by Stolzmann; one of these same specimens served as the type of domaniewskii.  In spite of the similarity in meaning affinis and assimilis are different words." (Peters 1968, V, 113) (subsp. Haplophaedia assimilis).
● "1. HEMIGNATHUS AFFINIS, sp. n.   This bird is very closely allied to H. hanapepe, of Kauai, but differs in having the head, throat, and upper breast more golden yellow, and the back, rump, and upper wing-coverts dull olive colour instead of greenish yellow.  Moreover, in H. affinis the yellow of the head terminates abruptly at the occiput, while it gradually passes into the colour of the back in H. hanapepe.  The anal region and under tail-coverts are yellowish green, whilst in H. hanapepe they are white."   (Rothschild 1893) (‡Hemignathus).
● "Dendrocolaptes affinis, de La Fr. — Valde affinis Picolapti guttato Lessonii [= Picolaptes guttata = syn. Lepidocolaptes fuscus], ab illo differt hæc species, statura majore et præsertim cauda alisque longioribus, maculisque totis colli pectoris et abdominis stramineis distincte nigro limbatis, quasi oculatis, his in Picolapte guttato majoribus, albidioribus, minus distinctis, lateribus tantum fusco marginatis." (de La Fresnaye 1839) (Lepidocolaptes).
● "Trichastoma, Nobis; n.g.   ...   *Tr. rostratum, Nobis.   ...   *Tr. affine, Nobis.  So like the other in plumage as to cause some doubt, on a first view, whether it be specifically distinct; but the much smaller size, and different colour, of the legs and feet, and also the much shorter bill, have decided me to adopt  the present course with it.  ...  General colour rather paler than in the preceding, excepting on the head; the nape much paler; and rump inclining to fulvous more than rufous: tail and its coverts brighter rufous than in the other; and breast crossed with pale fuscous." (Blyth 1842) (Malacopteron).
● "7. Eidopsarus affinis. — Capite, genis, gulaque nigerrimis; corpore supra luteo-olivacea, albo griseoque tincto infra; collo et thorace albidis; alis et cauda brunneo griseis.  Hab. Nova-Wallia meridionalis.    8. Meliphaga reticuloides [= syn. Melithreptus affinis].— Capite bruneo; corpore supra bruneo-olivaceo, sordide fusco, bruneo striato infra; alarum et caudæ pennis brunneis, luteo-olivaceo marginatis.  Long. 5 poll.  Hab. Nova-Wallia meridionalis." (Lesson 1839) (Melithreptus).
● "HESPERIPHONA AFFINIS, n. s.*   ...   *HESPERIPHONA AFFINIS, nobis.   Nearly affined to H. ICTERIOIDES (Coccothraustes icterioides, Vigors) [= Mycerobas icterioides].  ...  The adult male so nearly resembles that of H. ICTERIOIDES, that its distinctness would scarcely have been suspected, had it not been for the great difference of the other sex." (Blyth 1855) (Mycerobas).
● "42.  Nilaus affinis. Bocage.  N. indig. Caporo.  Hesitámos por muito tempo em estabelecer uma especia nova n'um genero que é ha muito conhecido por ter uma só especie; porém a constancia com que se nos apresentam os exemplares de Caconda distinctos do N. brubru pela ausencia total de malhas ferruginosas nos lados do peito e por outras variantes de côres, anima-nos a separal-os especificamente d'este.   ...   5. Nilaus affinis.  Ad. N. brubru [= subsp. Nilaus afersimilis, sed diversus; superciliis albis brevioribus; gastraeo toto albo, maculis pectoralibus castaneis nullis; fascia alari alba vix rufescente tincta; rostro nigricante; pedibus ardesiacis; iride fusca." (Barboza du Bocage 1878) (subsp. Nilaus afer).
● "10.  NINOX AFFINIS, Tytler, sp. nov.?  Andaman Hawk-Owl.  ...  Closely allied to Ninox scutellatus (Raffles) [= N. scutulata] but very considerably smaller, and differing also in being much more rufous on the under parts, and generally darker above." (Beavan 1867) (Ninox).
● "Sp. 39.  Melilestes affinis, nov. sp.   Melilestes M. ILIOLOPHO simillimus, sed capite supra cinerascentiore, dorso olivaceo paullo obscuriore, collo antico magis cineraceo." (Salvadori 1876) (syn. Oedistoma iliolophus).
● "263. Oriolus viridis [= syn. Oriolus sagittatus]   ...   264. Oriolus affinis, Gould.  Inhabits the neighbourhood of Port Essington, and only differs from the preceding species in having a smaller body, a shorter wing, a much larger bill, and in the white spots at the tip of the lateral tail-feathers being much smaller in extent." (Gould 1848) (subsp. Oriolus sagittatus).
● "Penelopides affinis, sp. n.   ♂. Like P. Panini, but differs by wanting the perpendicular grooves on the thick lateral plates of the maxilla, which are smooth, by the grooves at the base of the mandible not being recurved, but straight, by the whole bill being much less massive, by the abdominal region and under tail-coverts being of the same colour as the breast, and not rufous, by the upper tail-coverts being black, and not rufous, and by the rectrices having a black band at their insertion." (Tweeddale 1877) (Penelopides).
● "30. MOTACILLA OFFINIS.  Olive Willow Wren, T.  (Willow Wren? [= Phylloscopus trochilus])  5½ inches.  Male.  Upper parts dark olivaceous ashy-brown.  Beneath, brownish yellow ochre.  Clear yellow streak over eye.  Upper mandible dark, lower pale horn: legs horn, eyes hazle.  Killed in high-timbered jungle, on the banks of a stream." (Tickell 1833) (Phylloscopus).
● "536.  ABRORNIS AFFINIS, Hodgson.  ...  This species is closely allied to A. poliogenys [= Phylloscopus poliogenys (formerly Seicercus poliogenys)], but differs from it in having the lores, base of lower mandible, lower portion of the ear-coverts, chin and throat, the same bright yellow as the rest of the under-parts; the feathers of the crown are pale shafted, which does not appear in poliogenys" (Hodgson 1854) (syn. Phylloscopus intermedius (formerly Seicercus affinis)).
● "Barbatula affinis sp. n.   B. uropygiali [= subsp. Pogoniulus pusillus] simillima sed uropygio sulphureo; abdomine albido; pectore stramineo lavato." (Reichenow 1879) (subsp. Pogoniulus pusillus).
● "Zosterornis affinis sp. nov.  ...  Specific characters.—Similar to Zosterornis nigrocapitata (Steere) but slightly larger; chestnut of chin and upper throat diffused and not forming a patch on each side." (McGregor 1907) (subsp. Sterrhoptilus nigrocapitatus).
● "3. Elaenea pagana Licht.   ...   4. Elaenea affinis Lund.  ...  Dieser Vogel ist an seinem zur Hälfte blaßgelben und dann tief schwarzgefärbten Schwanz scharf von der vorigen, ähnlichen Art verschieden; er bewohnt die lichten Campos im Innern Brasiliens" (Burmeister 1856) (Suiriri).
● "Taccocua affinis, nobis.  ...  I find that the Sirkeer of the Rajmahl and Monghyr hills requires further to be distinguished from that of the Cawnpore district, higher up the Ganges in the WNW. direction.  ...  It combines the size of T. sirkee with the colouring of T. infuscata; but has the bill rather more abruptly curved over than in either, and coloured as in all its congeners." (Blyth 1846) (syn. Taccocua leschenaultii infuscata).
● "1. Tch. paradisi, (L.) [= Terpsiphone paradisi]   ...   2. Tch. affinis, A. Hay, MS.: Malayan Tch. paradisi, auctorum; Muscipeta castanea (?), Temminck.  In any state of plumage, this species may be distinguished from the last by having the crest never more than seven-eighths of an inch in length (generally less), and the feathers which compose the crest are broader and much more commingled into a uniform smooth surface than in the other.  The middle tail-feathers of the male rarely, if ever, attain a foot in length; whereas in the Indian species, they often exceed fifteen inches; in form, too, they are very much narrower than in Tch. paradisi (vera)." (Blyth 1846) (Terpsiphone).
● "CRINON ANALOGUE (Criniger affinis).  Femelle.  Partie supérieure vert olivâtre, plumes de la tête hastées; nuque pourvue d'un petit nombre de soies très fines et peu longues  ...  Habite Warou (Ceram)." (Hombron & Jacquinot 1841) (Thapsinillas).
● "POGONORHYNCHUS AFFINIS, n. sp.  In size and colouring this species resembles P. leucomelas, excepting that the entire forehead and crown are black as in P. melanocephalus [= Tricholaema melanocephala].  In the bill and rictal bristles it resembles P. leucomelas, but the tooth on the upper mandible is barely indicated and the culmen between the nostrils is not quite so wide." (Shelley 1880) (subsp. Tricholaema leucomelas).
● "15. G. variegatus; Cincl. variegatum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 55 [= Trochalopteron variegatum], and figured in Gould's Century, Pl. XVI.  Nepâl.   16. G. affinis, Hodgson. M. S.  Nearly allied both to the last, and (judging from description) to the next species.  ...  Inhabits Nepâl.    17. G. capistratus; Cincl. capistratum, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 55 [= Heterophasia capistrata].  Himalaya." (Blyth 1843) (Trochalopteron).
● "Yarrell and others extend the range of S. flammea [= Tyto alba] to South Africa; but a Cape specimen we have is certainly distinct, and is Strix affinis, nobis (Strix flammea apud nos, J. A. S. xxix. 100).  It is rather larger than Strix flammea, with the general colouring much deeper, the back being of a more prevalent and darker ashy, the lower parts more strongly fulvous, and especially the primaries and tail much more broadly and distinctly banded, the dark markings being greatly more developed than even in the true S. flammea of Europe and N. Africa." (Blyth 1862) (subsp. Tyto alba).
● "Catarractes affinis, sp. nov.   A new species of Catarractes, somewhat larger than C. lomvia Linn., may be based upon a right humerus, which is entire, and in an excellent state of preservation.  This specimen was referred to by the writer in the description of Catarractes antiquus, from the Tertiary of North Carolina, and the latter is evidently a nearly related species." (Marsh 1872) (‡Uria).
● "PICUS affinis,  Golden-naped Woodpecker.  ...  ORNITHOLOGISTS have either entirely overlooked this bird, or have slightly noticed it as a variety of Picus icterocephalus [= syn. Piculus flavigula], the golden-headed Woodpecker, from which it is nevertheless quite distinct." (Swainson 1821) (Veniliornis).
● "ORTYGOMETRA AFFINIS.  ...  This species is most like R. palustris [= subsp. Zapornia pusilla] of Mr. Gould, but it has not any white spots on the primaries, and the bill appears to be rather longer." (J. Gray 1846) (subsp. Zapornia pusilla).

Asian Glossy Starling (strigata)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis strigata
strigata / strigatus
L. strigatus  furrowed  < strix, strigis  furrow, groove (cf. striga  witch, hag  < strix, strigis  screech-owl).

Asian Glossy Starling (tytleri)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis tytleri
Col. Robert Christopher Tytler (1818-1872) British Army in India 1835-1864, naturalist, pioneer photographer, collector (subsp. Aplonis panayensis, subsp. Cisticola exilis, syn. Ficedula parva, subsp. Hirundo rustica, subsp. Hypothymis azurea, Phylloscopus, subsp. Psittacula longicauda, syn. Tarsiger cyanura rufilata).

Asian Glossy Starling (albiris)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis albiris
L. albus  white; Gr. ῥις rhis, ῥινος rhinos  nose, nostril.

Asian Glossy Starling (heterochlora)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis heterochlora
heterochlora / heterochlorus
Gr. ἑτερος heteros different; χλωρος khlōros green, yellow.

Asian Glossy Starling (eustathis)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis eustathis
Gr. ευσταθης eustathēs steadfast, tranquil, quiet  < ευ eu  ideal; ιστημι histēmi  to stand firm.

Asian Glossy Starling (alipodis)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis alipodis
Gr. αλη alē  wandering  < αλεομαι aleomai  to avoid; ποδιον podion  small foot  < dim. πους pous, ποδος podos  foot.

Asian Glossy Starling (panayensis)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis panayensis
panaya / panayana / panayanus / panayensis / panayus
Panay I., Philippines.
● ex “Petit Merle” or “Musicien de l’Île de Panay” of Sonnerat 1776 (Aplonis).
● Erroneous TL. Panay (= Gamtoos, South Africa); ex “Coliou de l’île de Panay” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and Sonnerat 1776, and “Panayan Coly” of Latham 1783 (syn. Colius striatus).
● ex “Coucou tacheté de l’île de Panay” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Panayan spotted Cuckow” of Latham 1782 (syn. Eudynamys scolopaceus mindanensis).
● Erroneous TL. Panay (= Gamtoos, South Africa); ex "Veuve en feu" and "Veuve à poitrine rouge" of de Buffon 1770-1783, "Veuve de l'Île de Panay" of Sonnerat 1776, and "Panayan Bunting" of Latham 1783 (syn. Euplectes ardens).
● ex “Hirondelle de Mer de l’Île de Panay” of Sonnerat 1776 (syn. Onychoprion anaethetus).

Asian Glossy Starling (sanghirensis)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis sanghirensis
sanghirana / sanghirense / sanghirensis / sangirensis
Sanghir I., Dutch East Indies / Sangihe I., Indonesia.

Asian Glossy Starling (enganensis)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis enganensis
● Engano I. (= Enggano), Sumatra, Indonesia (subsp. Aplonis panayensis, subsp. Coracina striata, subsp. Gracula religiosa, subsp. Otus umbra).
● Cape Engaño, Luzon, Philippines (syn. Cyornis herioti).

Asian Glossy Starling (altirostris)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis altirostris
altirostre / altirostris
L. altus  high, great, deep, noble  < alere  to nourish; -rostris  -billed  < rostrum  beak.

Asian Glossy Starling (leptorrhyncha)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis leptorrhyncha
leptorrhyncha / leptorrhynchus / leptorryncha
Gr. λεπτος leptos delicate, slender; ῥυγχος rhunkhos bill.

Asian Glossy Starling (pachistorhina)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis pachistorhina
pachistorhina / pachistorhinus
Gr. παχιστος pakhistos  very thick  < super. παχυς pakhus  thick; ῥις rhis, ῥινος rhinos  nose.

Asian Glossy Starling (gusti)
SCI Name: Aplonis panayensis gusti
Balinese Gusti  leader, a given name for the ruling elite and military caste of Bali (subsp. Aplonis panayensis).