Black-crowned Night-Heron / Nycticorax nycticorax

Black-crowned Night-Heron / Nycticorax nycticorax

Black-crowned Night-Heron

SCI Name:  Nycticorax nycticorax
Protonym:  Ardea Nycticorax Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.142
Category:  Pelecaniformes / Ardeidae /
Taxonomy Code:  bcnher
Type Locality:  southern Europe.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

NYCTICORAX
(Ardeidae; Ϯ Black-crowned Night Heron N. nycticorax) Specific name Ardea nycticorax Linnaeus, 1758; "153. NYCTICORAX INFAVSTVS.  THE NIGHT RAVEN." (T. Forster 1817); "Nycticorax T. Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Bds., 1817, p. 59. Type, by tautonymy and monotypy, Nycticorax infaustus Forster = Ardea nycticorax Linné." (Peters 1931, I, 114) (see nycticorax).
Var. Nicticorax, Nigricorax (L. niger black).
Synon. Maridus, Megaphoyx, Nycterodius, Nyctiardea, Scotaeus.

nycticorax
L. nycticorax, nycticoracis  unknown bird, probably an owl  < Gr. νυκτικοραξ nuktikorax, νυκτικορακος nuktikorakos  bird of evil omen mentioned by Aristotle, Hesychius and other authors, probably a sort of owl, but long associated with the night heron  < νυξ nux, νυκτος  nuktos night; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak; “The Germans call it, Nacht rab, that is, Night-raven, and under that title it is figured and described by Gesner ...  It is called Night-Raven, because in the night time it cries with an uncouth voice, like one that were straining to vomit” (Ray 1678); "76. ARDEA.  ...  Nycticorax.  9. A. crista occipitis tripenni dependente, dorso nigro, abdomine flavescente.  Nycticorax. Gesn. av. 628. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 57. p. 272.  Ardea cinerea minor. Will. orn. 204. t. 49. Raj. av. 99. n. 3. Mars. danub. 5. t. 3. Alb. av. 2. p. 62. t. 67. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 10.  Habitat in Europa australi.  Frons alba circum rostrum. Dorsum nigrum, abdomen album. Pennæ cristæ 3, teretiusculæ, albæ, ad medium dorsi dependentes." (Linnaeus 1758) (Nycticorax).

NYCTICORAX
(Ardeidae; Ϯ Black-crowned Night Heron N. nycticorax) Specific name Ardea nycticorax Linnaeus, 1758; "153. NYCTICORAX INFAVSTVS.  THE NIGHT RAVEN." (T. Forster 1817); "Nycticorax T. Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Bds., 1817, p. 59. Type, by tautonymy and monotypy, Nycticorax infaustus Forster = Ardea nycticorax Linné." (Peters 1931, I, 114) (see nycticorax).
Var. Nicticorax, Nigricorax (L. niger black).
Synon. Maridus, Megaphoyx, Nycterodius, Nyctiardea, Scotaeus.

nycticorax
L. nycticorax, nycticoracis  unknown bird, probably an owl  < Gr. νυκτικοραξ nuktikorax, νυκτικορακος nuktikorakos  bird of evil omen mentioned by Aristotle, Hesychius and other authors, probably a sort of owl, but long associated with the night heron  < νυξ nux, νυκτος  nuktos night; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak; “The Germans call it, Nacht rab, that is, Night-raven, and under that title it is figured and described by Gesner ...  It is called Night-Raven, because in the night time it cries with an uncouth voice, like one that were straining to vomit” (Ray 1678); "76. ARDEA.  ...  Nycticorax.  9. A. crista occipitis tripenni dependente, dorso nigro, abdomine flavescente.  Nycticorax. Gesn. av. 628. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 57. p. 272.  Ardea cinerea minor. Will. orn. 204. t. 49. Raj. av. 99. n. 3. Mars. danub. 5. t. 3. Alb. av. 2. p. 62. t. 67. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 10.  Habitat in Europa australi.  Frons alba circum rostrum. Dorsum nigrum, abdomen album. Pennæ cristæ 3, teretiusculæ, albæ, ad medium dorsi dependentes." (Linnaeus 1758) (Nycticorax).

SUBSPECIES

Black-crowned Night-Heron (Eurasian)
SCI Name: Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax
NYCTICORAX
(Ardeidae; Ϯ Black-crowned Night Heron N. nycticorax) Specific name Ardea nycticorax Linnaeus, 1758; "153. NYCTICORAX INFAVSTVS.  THE NIGHT RAVEN." (T. Forster 1817); "Nycticorax T. Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. Bds., 1817, p. 59. Type, by tautonymy and monotypy, Nycticorax infaustus Forster = Ardea nycticorax Linné." (Peters 1931, I, 114) (see nycticorax).
Var. Nicticorax, Nigricorax (L. niger black).
Synon. Maridus, Megaphoyx, Nycterodius, Nyctiardea, Scotaeus.

Black-crowned Night-Heron (American)
SCI Name: Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
hoactli
Nahuatl/Aztec names Huacton and Huactli for the young and adult respectively of the Black-crowned Night Heron; ex “Hoacton” of Willughby 1676, “Hoactli” or “Dry Bird” of Ray 1713, “Héron hupé du Méxique” of Brisson 1760, “Hocti” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Dry Heron” of Latham 1785 (subsp. Nycticorax nycticorax).

Black-crowned Night-Heron (Dusky)
SCI Name: Nycticorax nycticorax obscurus
obscurum / obscurus
L. obscurus  dark, dusky.
● ex “Hook-billed Green Creeper” of Latham 1782 (Akialoa).
● ex “Dusky-crowned Humming-bird” of Latham 1782 (syn. Clytolaema rubricauda).
● ex “Dusky Tody” of Latham 1782, and Pennant 1785 (syn. Contopus virens).
● ex “Pic verd de l’isle de Luçon” of Sonnerat 1776 (syn. Dendropicos griseocephalus).
● ex “Dusky Falcon” of Pennant 1787 (syn. Falco columbarius).
● ex “Dusky Grosbeak” (= ☼) of Pennant, 1784 (syn. Hedymeles ludovicianus).
● ex “Obscure Fly-catcher” of Latham 1823 (syn. Hemipus hirundinaceus).
● "44. PSITTACUS.  ...  obscurus.  3. P. macrourus niger, genis nudis, vertice cinereo-nigrescente vario, cauda cinerea. Hasselq. iter. 236.  Habitat in Africa?" (Linnaeus 1758) (unident.: ?‡syn. Mascarinus mascarin).
ex “White-rumped Woodpecker” of Latham 1782 (syn. Melanerpes erythrocephalus).
ex “Tolocatzenatl” of Ray 1713, “Sturnus novae Hispaniae” of Brisson 1760, “Tolcana” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Brown-headed Stare” of Latham 1783 (subsp. Molothrus ater).
● ex “Dusky Rail” of Latham 1785 (syn. Pennula sandwichensis).
● ex “Dusky Fly-catcher” of Latham 1783 (Phaeornis).
● ex “Black and White Dobchick” of Edwards 1747, “Colymbus minor” of Brisson 1760, “Petit Grèbe” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 942, and “Dusky Grebe” of Pennant 1785, and of Latham 1785 (syn. Podiceps auritus cornutus).
● ex “Dusky Plover” of Latham 1781 (cf. Dusky Bay, New Zealand) (Pluviorhynchus).
● ex “Dusky Petrel” of Latham 1785 (syn. Puffinus assimilis).
● ex “Indian Raven” of Willughby 1676, and “Wreathed Hornbill” of Latham 1781 (syn. Rhyticeros plicatus).
● ex “Dark Thrush” of Latham 1783 (Turdus).
● "This specimen, like many from the Anthony collection, is badly soiled, a condition which may have led Anthony to name a dark race" (Browning 1979) (syn. Vireo huttoni).
● "44. PSITTACUS.   ...   obscurus.  3. P. macrourus niger, genis nudis, vertice cinereo-nigrescente vario, cauda cinerea. Hasselq. iter. 236.  Habitat in Africa ?" (Linnaeus 1758); "Linnæus identified his Psittacus obscurus with P. mascarinus, Briss.  ...  but the evidence is against this identification" (Salvadori 1891) (unident.; nom. dub.). 

Black-crowned Night-Heron (Falklands)
SCI Name: Nycticorax nycticorax falklandicus
falklandica / falklandicus
Falkland Is. (Falkland Sound named after Anthony Cary 5th Viscount Falkland (1656-1694) MP, Treasurer of the Navy 1681-1689, First Lord of the Admiralty 1693-1694).
● ex “Caille des isles Malouines” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 222, and “Malouine Quail” of Latham 1783 (syn. Attagis malouinus).
● ex “Rusty-crowned Plover” of Portlock 1789 (Charadrius).