Black Skimmer / Rynchops niger

Black Skimmer / Rynchops niger

Black Skimmer

SCI Name:  Rynchops niger
Protonym:  Rynchops nigra Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.138
Category:  Charadriiformes / Laridae /
Taxonomy Code:  blkski
Type Locality:  America = coast of South Carolina, ex Catesby.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

RYNCHOPS
(Rynchopidae; Ϯ Black Skimmer R. niger) Gr. ῥυγχος rhunkhos  bill; κοπτω koptō  to cut off;"the upper mandible being as if cut" (Pennant 1773); the skimmers use their specialised bills to skim through the water surface for food; "71. RYNCHOPS.  Rostrum rectum: mandibula superiore multo breviore.  ...  Genus proxima affinitate Laris junctum." (Linnaeus 1758): based on "Cut Water" of Catesby 1731, "Rygchopsalia" of Barrère 1745, and "Plotus rostro conico inæquali" of Klein 1750; "Rynchops Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 138. Type, by monotypy, Rynchops nigra Linné." (Peters 1934, II, 349).  Linnaeus's Rynchops comprised two forms (R. nigra, R. fulva). 
Var. Rhynchops, Rhincops, Rhinchops, Rhijncops, Rhyncops.
Synon. Anisoramphos, Phalacrocorax, Psalidoramphos, Rygchopsalia.

niger
L. niger  black, dark coloured, shining black, jet black (cf. ater  dead black, dusky) (see nigra).
● ex “Black Vulture” of Willughby 1676, and Latham 1781, “Swarthy Vulture” of Charleton 1677, “Vultur niger” of Brisson 1760, and “Avoltojo nero” of Cetti 1776 (syn. Aegypius monachus).
● ?ex “Bouvreuil noir d’Afrique” of Brisson 1760 (Bubalornis).
● ex “Black Hawk” of A. Wilson 1812 (syn. Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis).
● ex “Barbu de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 206, fig. 1 (Capito).
● "70. STERNA.  ...  nigra.  3. S. cauda subforficata, corpore cano, capite rostroque nigro, pedibus rubris. Fn. svec. 128.  Hirundo marina minor. Alb. av. 2. p. 82. t. 89.  Sterna fusca. Raj. av. 131.  Larus cinereus minor. Aldr. orn. . .  Habitat in Europa; vivit in societate." (Linnaeus 1758) (Chlidonias).
● ex “Martinet de S. Domingue. Hirundo apus dominicensis” of Brisson 1760, and “Petit Martinet noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (Cypseloides).
● ex “Ibis of Bellonius” of Willughby 1676, and Ray 1713, “Ibis” of Brisson 1760, “Ibis noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black Ibis” of Latham 1785 (syn. Geronticus calvus).
● ex “Black Snipe” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Haematopus bachmani).
● ex “Black Rail” of Latham 1785 (syn. Limnocorax flavirostris).
● “Vieillot [1817] probably referred to this species, but the brief description might equally apply to P. fuscicollis” (Ogilvie-Grant 1898) (Microcarbo).
● ex “Yellow-tufted Bee-eater” of Latham 1782 (syn. Moho nobilis).
● ex “Barbu à gorge noires” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Barbu de l’ile de Luçon” of Sonnerat 1782, and “Black-throated Barbet” of Latham 1782 (syn. Notharchus tectus).
● ex “Mésange Noire” of Levaillant 1803, pl. 137 (Melaniparus).
● ex “Black Shrike” of Latham 1781 (Platypsaris).
● ex “Pluvian du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 918 (syn. Pluvianus aegyptius).
● ex "Troupiale noir de Saint-Domingue" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 534 (Quiscalus).
● ex "Icterus niger" of Brisson 1760, "Troupiale noir" of de Buffon 1770-1783, and "Black Oriole" of Latham 1782, and Pennant 1785 (syn. Quiscalus niger).
● "60. TROCHILUS.  ...  niger.  13. T. rectricibus subæqualibus, corpore nigro subtus aurato, ano albo.  Trochilus niger. Mus. Ad. Fr. I. p. 13.  Habitat in Indiis." (Linnaeus 1758) (describing a melanistic form of this variable species) (Threnetes).
● "52. CUCULUS.  ...  niger.  6. C. cauda cuneiformi, corpore nigro nitido, rostro flavo.  Cuculus indicus niger. Edw. av. 58. t. 58.  Habitat in Benghala." (Linnaeus 1758) (unident.).

SUBSPECIES

Black Skimmer (niger)
SCI Name: Rynchops niger niger
niger
L. niger  black, dark coloured, shining black, jet black (cf. ater  dead black, dusky) (see nigra).
● ex “Black Vulture” of Willughby 1676, and Latham 1781, “Swarthy Vulture” of Charleton 1677, “Vultur niger” of Brisson 1760, and “Avoltojo nero” of Cetti 1776 (syn. Aegypius monachus).
● ?ex “Bouvreuil noir d’Afrique” of Brisson 1760 (Bubalornis).
● ex “Black Hawk” of A. Wilson 1812 (syn. Buteo lagopus sanctijohannis).
● ex “Barbu de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 206, fig. 1 (Capito).
● "70. STERNA.  ...  nigra.  3. S. cauda subforficata, corpore cano, capite rostroque nigro, pedibus rubris. Fn. svec. 128.  Hirundo marina minor. Alb. av. 2. p. 82. t. 89.  Sterna fusca. Raj. av. 131.  Larus cinereus minor. Aldr. orn. . .  Habitat in Europa; vivit in societate." (Linnaeus 1758) (Chlidonias).
● ex “Martinet de S. Domingue. Hirundo apus dominicensis” of Brisson 1760, and “Petit Martinet noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (Cypseloides).
● ex “Ibis of Bellonius” of Willughby 1676, and Ray 1713, “Ibis” of Brisson 1760, “Ibis noir” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Black Ibis” of Latham 1785 (syn. Geronticus calvus).
● ex “Black Snipe” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Haematopus bachmani).
● ex “Black Rail” of Latham 1785 (syn. Limnocorax flavirostris).
● “Vieillot [1817] probably referred to this species, but the brief description might equally apply to P. fuscicollis” (Ogilvie-Grant 1898) (Microcarbo).
● ex “Yellow-tufted Bee-eater” of Latham 1782 (syn. Moho nobilis).
● ex “Barbu à gorge noires” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Barbu de l’ile de Luçon” of Sonnerat 1782, and “Black-throated Barbet” of Latham 1782 (syn. Notharchus tectus).
● ex “Mésange Noire” of Levaillant 1803, pl. 137 (Melaniparus).
● ex “Black Shrike” of Latham 1781 (Platypsaris).
● ex “Pluvian du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 918 (syn. Pluvianus aegyptius).
● ex "Troupiale noir de Saint-Domingue" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 534 (Quiscalus).
● ex "Icterus niger" of Brisson 1760, "Troupiale noir" of de Buffon 1770-1783, and "Black Oriole" of Latham 1782, and Pennant 1785 (syn. Quiscalus niger).
● "60. TROCHILUS.  ...  niger.  13. T. rectricibus subæqualibus, corpore nigro subtus aurato, ano albo.  Trochilus niger. Mus. Ad. Fr. I. p. 13.  Habitat in Indiis." (Linnaeus 1758) (describing a melanistic form of this variable species) (Threnetes).
● "52. CUCULUS.  ...  niger.  6. C. cauda cuneiformi, corpore nigro nitido, rostro flavo.  Cuculus indicus niger. Edw. av. 58. t. 58.  Habitat in Benghala." (Linnaeus 1758) (unident.).

Black Skimmer (cinerascens)
SCI Name: Rynchops niger cinerascens
cinerascens
Late L. cinerescens, cinerescentis  ashen  < cinerescere  to turn to ashes  < L. cinis, cineris  ashes.
● ex “Mésange Grisette” of Levaillant 1803, pl. 138 (Melaniparus).

Black Skimmer (intercedens)
SCI Name: Rynchops niger intercedens
intercedens
L. intercedens, intercedentis  interposed, coming between  < intercedere  to come between.
● Not only does the Growling Riflebird occupy eastern New Guinea, between the ranges of the two subspp. of the Magnificent Riflebird L. magnifica, but the female resembles the female of the nominate subsp. and the male resembles the male of the other (Lophorina).