Blue-breasted Kingfisher / Halcyon malimbica

Blue-breasted Kingfisher / Halcyon malimbica

Blue-breasted Kingfisher

SCI Name:  Halcyon malimbica
Protonym:  Alcedo Malimbica Gen.Zool.[Shaw] 8 pt1 p.66
Taxonomy:  Coraciiformes / Alcedinidae /
Taxonomy Code:  blbkin4
Type Locality:  Malimba, Portuguese Congo.
Publish Year:  1812
IUCN Status:  


(Alcedinidae; Ϯ Woodland Kingfisher H. senegalensis) Gr. αλκυων alkuōn, αλκυονος alkuonos  mythical bird, long associated with the kingfisher, which nested on the sea.  It was beloved of the gods, who calmed the waves whilst it incubated and raised its young, and such periods of peace and calm became known as “halcyon days”; "HALCYON collaris.  Collared Crabeater.   GENERIC CHARACTER.  Rostrum longissimum, rectum, validum, ad basin latius quam altius, lateribus tetragonis; mandibula superiore rectissima, ad basin rotundata; inferiore carinata, recurvata, margine superioris inferiorum obtegente.  Nares basales, membrana tectæ, apertura nuda, lineari obliqua.  Cauda plerumque mediocris.  Pedes gressorii, digito antico interiore minimo aut nullo.  Typus Genericus Alcedo Senegalensis. Linn.   ...   REFERRING to the observations we have already made on Kingsfishers generally, it will be only necessary to observe, that the species now formed into the genus Halcyon appear entirely excluded from the American continent: their bills are much stronger, thicker, and more rounded than the genuine Kingsfishers, and the under mandible beneath invariably carinated and curving upwards. One of them (the Alcedo Senegalensis of Latham) is known to feed on crabs, the breaking and disjointing of which this structure seems admirably calculated to accomplish   ...   The situation of Halcyon will be between Alcedo and Dacelo; from the last of which it is distinguished by its perfectly straight, acute, and entire upper mandible, which, on the contrary, in Dacelo is notched, the tip bent and obtuse." (Swainson 1821); "Halcyon Swainson, Zool. Illustr., 1, 1820-21 (1821), text to pl. 27.  Type, by original designation, Alcedo senegalensis Linné." (Peters, 1945, V, p. 193).       
Var. Halcion.   
Synon. Alcyon, Calialcyon, Cancrophaga, Cecilia, Ceciliella, Cedola, Chelicutia, Chelicutona, Entomobia, Entomophila, Entomothera, Halcyonopa, Nutchera, Pagurothera, Plesialcyon, Pseudhalcyon.
● (syn. Alcedo Ϯ Common Kingfisher A. atthis ispida) "Halcyon alcedo, King Fisher." (Morris 1837).

malimbica / malimbicus
Malimba or Malimbe, Portuguese Congo (= Cabinda Enclave, Angola).
● ex “Martin-pêcheur de Malimbe” of de Buffon (Sonnini ed.) 1800-1802 (Halcyon).


Blue-breasted Kingfisher (malimbica)
SCI Name: Halcyon malimbica malimbica
malimbica / malimbicus
Malimba or Malimbe, Portuguese Congo (= Cabinda Enclave, Angola).
● ex “Martin-pêcheur de Malimbe” of de Buffon (Sonnini ed.) 1800-1802 (Halcyon).

Blue-breasted Kingfisher (torquata)
SCI Name: Halcyon malimbica torquata
L. torquatus  collared  < torques  collar, necklace  < torquere  to twist.
● ex “Pato collar negro” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 441 (syn. Callonetta leucophrys).
● ex “Guira-querea” of Ray 1713, “Tette-Chèvre du Brésil” of Brisson 1760, and “Gold-collared Goatsucker” of Latham 1783 (Hydropsalis).
● ex “Rasle à collier des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Hypotaenidia).
● ex “Martin-pescheur hupé du Méxique” of Brisson 1760 (Megaceryle).
● ex “Fourmilier de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 700, fig. 1 (Myrmornis).
● ex “Chouette à Collier” of Levaillant 1799, pl. 42 (syn. Pulsatrix perspicillata).
● ex “Maizi de Miacatototl” of Seba 1734, and de Buffon 1770-1783, “Manacus torquatus” of Brisson 1760, and “Collared Manakin” of Latham 1783 (unident.).

Blue-breasted Kingfisher (forbesi)
SCI Name: Halcyon malimbica forbesi
● William Alexander Forbes (1855-1883) British zoologist, collector in tropical Africa and Brazil (Anumara, syn. Aplopelia simplex, Charadrius, syn. Emberiza affinis, subsp. Halcyon malimbica, subsp. Lagonosticta rara, Leptodon).
● "This new geographical race of the Striped Owl is named for Mr. Dyfrig McH. Forbes, of Potrero Viejo, Veracruz, who, along with his family, has contributed greatly to scientific knowledge by making extensive collections of natural history objects and by assisting personnel connected with various museum expeditions. In the latter regard, the Hacienda Potrero has served as headquarters or temporary abode for numerous field parties of diverse zoological interest" (Lowery & Dalquest 1951) (subsp. Asio clamator).
Sir Victor Courtenay Walter Forbes (1889-1958) British diplomat in Mexico, Spain and Peru (Atlapetes).
● Henry Ogg Forbes (1851-1932) Scottish botanist, ethnologist, explorer in the East Indies and New Guinea, Director of the Canterbury Mus., New Zealand, 1890-1893, Director of the Liverpool Museums 1894-1911 (Cyanoramphus, syn. Erythrura tricolor, Lonchura, subsp. Myzomela nigrita, Ninox, Rallicula).
● William Cameron Forbes (1870-1959) US banker, diplomat, Commissioner of Philippine Commerce & Police 1904-1908, Vice-Gov. and Gov.-Gen. of the Philippines 1908-1913, Ambassador to Japan 1930-1932 (subsp. Megalurus palustris, syn. Zosterops everetti basilanicus).

Blue-breasted Kingfisher (dryas)
SCI Name: Halcyon malimbica dryas
Gr. myth. Dryas, tree-nymph, dryad; indicating woodland habitat or graceful appearance.
• "It is very elegant, all the parts being admirably proportioned; and the colours harmoniously arranged." (Gould 1855) (Catharus).
• "68. Dryas Hartl.  Simillima praecedenti [Alc. malimbica Shaw]" (Hartlaub, 1854) (subsp. Halcyon malimbica). 
• "Nahe Ph. tr. nesophilus (Riley), der die Gebirge des nördlichen Central-Celebes in der Umgebung des Posso-Sees bewohnt, aber durchschnittlich größer" (Stresemann 1938) (syn. Phylloscopus sarasinorum nesophilus).
• "This species is nearly allied to Rhipidura rufifrons, but differs in being much smaller" (Gould 1843) (Rhipidura).
• "From the indistinct character of the markings of the throat and abdomen, the bird from which the above description was taken would appear to be somewhat immature." (Gould 1842) (syn. Vini ultramarina).