Brown-backed Needletail / Hirundapus giganteus

Brown-backed Needletail / Hirundapus giganteus

Brown-backed Needletail

SCI Name:  Hirundapus giganteus
Protonym:  Cypselus giganteus Pl.Col. livr.61 pl.364
Category:  Caprimulgiformes / Apodidae /
Taxonomy Code:  brbnee1
Type Locality:  Bantam, Java.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1825
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

HIRUNDAPUS
(Apodidae; Ϯ White-throated Needletail H. caudacutus nudipes) Portmanteau of genera Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, swallow, and Apus Scopoli, 1777, swift; “CYPSELUS.  Chætura.   Species 1st. Nudipes, nobis.   ...  Remark. This singular species, by the structure of its feet, opens a passage from Hirundo to Cypselus.  Though variously allied to Pelasgia, Acuta, Caudacuta, and Gigantea, it exhibits, I believe, a distinct type of form—being certainly not a Chætura as defined by STEVENS, nor a Cypselus of ILLIGER; far less a swallow.  It climbs with great power aided equally by its talons and its tail.  Its habitat is the northern region, whence it sometimes wanders into the mountains of the central, avoiding however the open and level country.  I have set it down in my note book as the type of a new genus, called Hirund-apus.” (Hodgson 1837); "Hirund-apus Hodgson, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 5, 1836 (1837), p. 780.  Type, by original designation and monotypy, Cypselus (Chaetura) nudipes Hodgson." (Peters, 1940, IV, p. 232).
Var. Hirundinapus.
Synon. Pallenia.

gigantea / giganteus
L. giganteus  gigantic, of the giants  < gigas, gigantis  giant  < Gr. γιγας gigas, γιγαντος gigantos  giant.
● ex “Coucal Géant” of Levaillant 1807, pl. 223 (syn. Centropus phasianinus).
● ex “Touraco Géant” of Levaillant 1806 (syn. Corythaeola cristata).
● ex Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773, and “Sibirian Crane” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Grus leucogeranus).
● ex “Gigantic Crane” of Latham 1785 (syn. Leptoptilos dubius).
● ex “Ossifraga” of de Ulloa 1748, “Quebrantahuessos Mouton” of Pernety 1769, “Quebrantahuessos” of de Buffon 1770-1783, de Bougainville 1771, Cook 1777, and Forster 1777, “Osprey Petrel” of Forster 1778, and “Giant Petrel” of Latham 1785 (Macronectes).

SUBSPECIES

Brown-backed Needletail (indicus)
SCI Name: Hirundapus giganteus indicus
indicus
L. Indicus  Indian  < India  India. In early ornithology the term Indiis was also applied to the East Indies and, less frequently, to the West Indies and the Guianas.
● India and Tibet; ex “Barred-headed Goose” of Latham 1787 (Anser).
● Erroneous TL. India (= South Carolina) (syn. Baeolophus bicolor).
● Java; ex “Javan Hawk” of Latham 1781 (Butastur).
● ex “Indian Goatsucker” of Latham 1787 (Caprimulgus).
● ex “Drongolon” of Levaillant 1805, pl. 174, and “Long-tailed Shrike” of Latham 1822 (syn. Dicrurus macrocercus).
● ex "Psittaca indica coccinea” of Brisson, “Perruche des Indes orientales” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 143, “Lori Perruche violet et rouge” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Indian Lory” of Latham 1781 (syn. Eos histrio).
● ex “Lohaujung Heron” of Latham 1787 (syn. Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus).
● ex “Eastern black Cuckow” of Lastham 1787 (syn. Eudynamys scolopaceus).
● ex “Grand Vautour des Indes” of Sonnerat 1782 (Gyps).
● ex “Indian Curucui” of Latham 1787 (?syn. Harpactes fasciatus).
● ex “Merle des Indes orientales” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 273, fig. 2 (syn. Lalage nigra).
● ex “Smallest red and green Indian Paroquet” of Edwards 1743-1751, “Psittacula indica” of Brisson 1760, and “Red and green indian Parrot” of Latham 1781 (syn. Loriculus beryllinus).
● ex “Indian Jacana” of Latham 1787 (Metopidius).
● ex “Little Hawk Owl of Ceylon” of Pennant 1769, and “Indian Eared Owl” of Latham 1781 (syn. Otus bakkamoena).
● ex “Gélinote des Indes” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Indian Grous” of Latham 1783 (Pterocles).
● ex “White-chinned Bustard” of Latham 1783, and “Passarage Bustard” of Latham 1787 (Sypheotides).
● ex “Rossignol de muraille des Indes” of Sonnerat 1782 (Tarsiger).
● ex “Bécassine blanche des Indes” of Sonnerat 1776, and “White indian Snipe” of Latham 1785 (?Tringa erythropus).
● Erroneous TL. India (= Gamtoos River, Cape Province, South Africa); ex “Indian Coly” of Latham 1787 (Urocolius).
● ex “Vanneau armé des Indes” of de Buffon 1770-1785 (Vanellus).
● ex “Little redwinged Parrakeet” of Edwards 1758-1764, and “Psittaca indica” of Brisson 1760 (unident.).
● India; ex “Sicrin” of Levaillant 1801, pl. 82 (artefact).

Brown-backed Needletail (giganteus)
SCI Name: Hirundapus giganteus giganteus
gigantea / giganteus
L. giganteus  gigantic, of the giants  < gigas, gigantis  giant  < Gr. γιγας gigas, γιγαντος gigantos  giant.
● ex “Coucal Géant” of Levaillant 1807, pl. 223 (syn. Centropus phasianinus).
● ex “Touraco Géant” of Levaillant 1806 (syn. Corythaeola cristata).
● ex Grus leucogeranus Pallas, 1773, and “Sibirian Crane” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (syn. Grus leucogeranus).
● ex “Gigantic Crane” of Latham 1785 (syn. Leptoptilos dubius).
● ex “Ossifraga” of de Ulloa 1748, “Quebrantahuessos Mouton” of Pernety 1769, “Quebrantahuessos” of de Buffon 1770-1783, de Bougainville 1771, Cook 1777, and Forster 1777, “Osprey Petrel” of Forster 1778, and “Giant Petrel” of Latham 1785 (Macronectes).