Clapper Rail / Rallus crepitans

Clapper Rail / Rallus crepitans

Clapper Rail

SCI Name:  Rallus crepitans
Protonym:  Rallus crepitans Syst.Nat. 1 pt2 p.713
Category:  Gruiformes / Rallidae /
Taxonomy Code:  clarai11
Type Locality:  'In Noveboraco,'' restricted type locality. Long Island, New York.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1789
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

RALLUS
(Rallidae; Ϯ Water Rail R. aquaticus) Probably from Med. French Rasle or Râle  rail (supported by Sundevall 1873: "Nomen Rallus, primum Rasle, Bélon, dein Râle, est vox gallica medii ævi, nec latina, sed usu diuturno probata",  and BOU 1915: “the latinized form of the French Rale, our Rail, Dutch Ral”), but Gessner 1555 states, "Rallus hæc avis circa Venetias appellatur", and Macleod 1954, has “Latinized form of German ralle, rail (bird)”; "83. RALLUS.  Rostrum basi crassius, compressum, dorso attenuatum apicem versus, æquale, acutum.  Pedes tetradactyli, fissi.  Corpus compressum." (Linnaeus 1758); ex “Rallus aquaticus” of Willughby 1676, and “Water Rail. Rallus Aquaticus” of Albin 1731; "Rallus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 153. Type, by subsequent designation, Rallus aquaticus Linné. (Fleming, Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc., 3, 1821, p. 176.)" (Peters 1934, II, 157). Linnaeus's Rallus comprised five species (R. Crex, R. aquaticus, R. lariformis, R. benghalensis, R. carolinus).
Var. RailusRalus, Rallas, Rullus, Ballus.
Synon. Biensis, Epirallus.

crepitans
L. crepitans, crepitantis  breaking wind, resounding  < crepitare  to resound, to break wind.
● “84. PSOPHIA.  ...  crepitans.  1. PSOPHIA.  Psophia crepitans nigra, pectore columbino. Barr. av. 62.  Gallina sylvatica crepitans, pectore columbino. Barr. æquin. 132.  Gallina sylvestris Macucagua. Raj. av. 53.  Macucagua. Marcgr. bras. 213. Pis. bras. 88.  Habitat in America meridionali.  Rostro mussitans respondet per anum." (Linnaeus 1758) (Psophia).
● ex “Coach-whip Flycatcher” of Latham 1801 (syn. Psophodes olivaceus).
● ex “Clapper Rail” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Rallus).

SUBSPECIES

Clapper Rail (Atlantic Coast)
SCI Name: Rallus crepitans crepitans/waynei
RALLUS
(Rallidae; Ϯ Water Rail R. aquaticus) Probably from Med. French Rasle or Râle  rail (supported by Sundevall 1873: "Nomen Rallus, primum Rasle, Bélon, dein Râle, est vox gallica medii ævi, nec latina, sed usu diuturno probata",  and BOU 1915: “the latinized form of the French Rale, our Rail, Dutch Ral”), but Gessner 1555 states, "Rallus hæc avis circa Venetias appellatur", and Macleod 1954, has “Latinized form of German ralle, rail (bird)”; "83. RALLUS.  Rostrum basi crassius, compressum, dorso attenuatum apicem versus, æquale, acutum.  Pedes tetradactyli, fissi.  Corpus compressum." (Linnaeus 1758); ex “Rallus aquaticus” of Willughby 1676, and “Water Rail. Rallus Aquaticus” of Albin 1731; "Rallus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 153. Type, by subsequent designation, Rallus aquaticus Linné. (Fleming, Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc., 3, 1821, p. 176.)" (Peters 1934, II, 157). Linnaeus's Rallus comprised five species (R. Crex, R. aquaticus, R. lariformis, R. benghalensis, R. carolinus).
Var. RailusRalus, Rallas, Rullus, Ballus.
Synon. Biensis, Epirallus.

Clapper Rail (Gulf Coast)
SCI Name: Rallus crepitans saturatus/scottii
RALLUS
(Rallidae; Ϯ Water Rail R. aquaticus) Probably from Med. French Rasle or Râle  rail (supported by Sundevall 1873: "Nomen Rallus, primum Rasle, Bélon, dein Râle, est vox gallica medii ævi, nec latina, sed usu diuturno probata",  and BOU 1915: “the latinized form of the French Rale, our Rail, Dutch Ral”), but Gessner 1555 states, "Rallus hæc avis circa Venetias appellatur", and Macleod 1954, has “Latinized form of German ralle, rail (bird)”; "83. RALLUS.  Rostrum basi crassius, compressum, dorso attenuatum apicem versus, æquale, acutum.  Pedes tetradactyli, fissi.  Corpus compressum." (Linnaeus 1758); ex “Rallus aquaticus” of Willughby 1676, and “Water Rail. Rallus Aquaticus” of Albin 1731; "Rallus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 153. Type, by subsequent designation, Rallus aquaticus Linné. (Fleming, Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc., 3, 1821, p. 176.)" (Peters 1934, II, 157). Linnaeus's Rallus comprised five species (R. Crex, R. aquaticus, R. lariformis, R. benghalensis, R. carolinus).
Var. RailusRalus, Rallas, Rullus, Ballus.
Synon. Biensis, Epirallus.

Clapper Rail (Caribbean)
SCI Name: Rallus crepitans [caribaeus Group]
RALLUS
(Rallidae; Ϯ Water Rail R. aquaticus) Probably from Med. French Rasle or Râle  rail (supported by Sundevall 1873: "Nomen Rallus, primum Rasle, Bélon, dein Râle, est vox gallica medii ævi, nec latina, sed usu diuturno probata",  and BOU 1915: “the latinized form of the French Rale, our Rail, Dutch Ral”), but Gessner 1555 states, "Rallus hæc avis circa Venetias appellatur", and Macleod 1954, has “Latinized form of German ralle, rail (bird)”; "83. RALLUS.  Rostrum basi crassius, compressum, dorso attenuatum apicem versus, æquale, acutum.  Pedes tetradactyli, fissi.  Corpus compressum." (Linnaeus 1758); ex “Rallus aquaticus” of Willughby 1676, and “Water Rail. Rallus Aquaticus” of Albin 1731; "Rallus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 153. Type, by subsequent designation, Rallus aquaticus Linné. (Fleming, Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc., 3, 1821, p. 176.)" (Peters 1934, II, 157). Linnaeus's Rallus comprised five species (R. Crex, R. aquaticus, R. lariformis, R. benghalensis, R. carolinus).
Var. RailusRalus, Rallas, Rullus, Ballus.
Synon. Biensis, Epirallus.

Clapper Rail (Yucatan)
SCI Name: Rallus crepitans [pallidus Group]
RALLUS
(Rallidae; Ϯ Water Rail R. aquaticus) Probably from Med. French Rasle or Râle  rail (supported by Sundevall 1873: "Nomen Rallus, primum Rasle, Bélon, dein Râle, est vox gallica medii ævi, nec latina, sed usu diuturno probata",  and BOU 1915: “the latinized form of the French Rale, our Rail, Dutch Ral”), but Gessner 1555 states, "Rallus hæc avis circa Venetias appellatur", and Macleod 1954, has “Latinized form of German ralle, rail (bird)”; "83. RALLUS.  Rostrum basi crassius, compressum, dorso attenuatum apicem versus, æquale, acutum.  Pedes tetradactyli, fissi.  Corpus compressum." (Linnaeus 1758); ex “Rallus aquaticus” of Willughby 1676, and “Water Rail. Rallus Aquaticus” of Albin 1731; "Rallus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 153. Type, by subsequent designation, Rallus aquaticus Linné. (Fleming, Mem. Wernerian Nat. Hist. Soc., 3, 1821, p. 176.)" (Peters 1934, II, 157). Linnaeus's Rallus comprised five species (R. Crex, R. aquaticus, R. lariformis, R. benghalensis, R. carolinus).
Var. RailusRalus, Rallas, Rullus, Ballus.
Synon. Biensis, Epirallus.