Common Tern / Sterna hirundo

Common Tern / Sterna hirundo

Common Tern

SCI Name:  Sterna hirundo
Protonym:  Sterna Hirundo Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.137
Category:  Charadriiformes / Laridae /
Taxonomy Code:  comter
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

STERNA
(Laridae; Ϯ Common Tern S. hirundo) Old English names Stern, Stearn or Starn for the Black Tern (cf. Swedish Tärna; Norwegian Terne); "70. STERNA.  Rostrum edentulum, subulatum, rectum, acutum apice compressiusculo.  Nares lineares." (Linnaeus 1758); "Sterna Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 137. Type, by tautonymy, Sterna hirundo Linné (Sterna, prebinomial specific name in synonymy)." (Peters 1934, II, 331). Linnaeus's Sterna comprised three species (S. stolida, S. Hirundo, S. nigra).
Var. SteniaTerna.
Synon. Chelido, Gygisterna, Potamochelidon, Pseudosterna, Seena, Thalassaea.

sterna
Mod. L. sterna tern.

HIRUNDO
(Hirundinidae; Ϯ Barn Swallow H. rustica) L. hirundo, hirundinis  swallow; "101. HIRUNDO.  Rostrum minimum, incurvum, subulatum, basi depressum.  Rictus capite amplius." (Linnaeus 1758). “The type of this Linnean genus has always been a somewhat difficult question to decide. The genus contains eight species, of which the first-named is “rustica,” the Swallow, and this was made the type of the genus by Gray [1840] ...  Stejneger (Proc. U. S. National Mus. v. 1883, p. 31) first drew attention to the fact that Forster [1817] ...  used urbica (House-Martin) in conjunction with Hirundo, and rustica (Swallow) with Chelidon, a genus there first named, and he considered this to constitute a designation of the type by Forster ...  After careful consideration of the matter, the Committee are of opinion that Forster’s use of Hirundo in conjunction with urbica hardly constitutes designation as understood under the code of International Rules, and that Hirundo rustica is the correct type of the Linnean genus” (BOU 1915); "Hirundo Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 191. Type, by subsequent designation, Hirundo rustica Linnaeus (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Gen. Birds, p. 8.)." (Peters, 1960, IX, p. 104). Linnaeus's Hirundo comprised eight species (H. rustica, H. esculenta, H. urbica, H. riparia, H. Apus, H. Subis, H. pelagica, H. Melba).
Var. Hirunda.
Synon. Charitochelidon, Chelidon, Hemicecrops, Herse, Hersepis, Hypurolepis, Natalornis, Setirundo, Uromitus, Waldenia.

hirundo
L. hirundo, hirundinis  swallow.
● "70. STERNA.  ...  Hirundo.  2. S. cauda forficata: rectricibus duabus extimis albo nigroque dimidiatis. Fn. svec. 127.  Sterna. Gesn. av. 53. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 7. Jonst. av. 130. t. 46.  Hirundo marina. Will. orn. 268. t. 68. Raj. av. 131. Alb. av. 2. p. 79. t. 90.  Habitat in Europa.  Mas & Femina indissolubiles socii monogami." (Linnaeus 1758); “Prof. Einar Lönnberg (Ibis, 1913, p. 301) has gone carefully into the question whether S. hirundo Linn. should be applied to the Common or to the Arctic Tern. He has given good reasons for referring it to the former species, and the Committee have accepted his decision” (BOU 1915) (Sterna).

SUBSPECIES

Common Tern (hirundo/tibetana)
SCI Name: Sterna hirundo hirundo/tibetana
STERNA
(Laridae; Ϯ Common Tern S. hirundo) Old English names Stern, Stearn or Starn for the Black Tern (cf. Swedish Tärna; Norwegian Terne); "70. STERNA.  Rostrum edentulum, subulatum, rectum, acutum apice compressiusculo.  Nares lineares." (Linnaeus 1758); "Sterna Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 137. Type, by tautonymy, Sterna hirundo Linné (Sterna, prebinomial specific name in synonymy)." (Peters 1934, II, 331). Linnaeus's Sterna comprised three species (S. stolida, S. Hirundo, S. nigra).
Var. SteniaTerna.
Synon. Chelido, Gygisterna, Potamochelidon, Pseudosterna, Seena, Thalassaea.

Common Tern (longipennis)
SCI Name: Sterna hirundo longipennis
longipennis
L. longus  long; -pennis  -winged, -feathered  < penna  feather.