Dunlin / Calidris alpina

Dunlin / Calidris alpina

Dunlin

SCI Name:  Calidris alpina
Protonym:  Tringa alpina Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.149
Category:  Charadriiformes / Scolopacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  dunlin
Type Locality:  Lapland.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

CALIDRIS
(Scolopacidae; Red Knot C. canutus) Specific name Tringa calidris J. Gmelin, 1789 (= syn. Calidris canutus); "Knüffel, Calidris.  Schnabel walzenförmig, gegen die Spitze hin dicker, glatt.  Mittlere und äußere Zehe etwas verbunden.   Tringa calidris, arenaria u.a." (Merrem 1804); "LES MAUBÈCHES. (CALIDRIS. Cuv.) (1)  ...  La grande Maubèche grise, Sandpiper et Canut, des Anglais. (Tringa grisea et Tr. Canutus. Gm.) Le plum. d'hiver, enl. 366. Edw. 276.  ...  (1) CALIDRIS, oiseau cendré et tacheté, fréquentant les rivières et les bois. Arist.  Brisson l'applique à l'une des espèces de ce genre" (Cuvier 1817); "Calidris Anonymous = Merrem, Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 2, no. 168, 8 June, 1804, col. 542.  Type, by tautonymy, Tringa calidris Gmelin = Tringa canutus Linné." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 280). 
Var. Calidridris, CallidrisCallydris, Calydris, Chalidris.   
Synon. Actia, Actodromas, Ancylocheilus, Anteliotringa, Aphriza, Arquatella, Canutus, Cinclus, Delopygia, Ereunetes, Erolia, Eurynorhynchus, Falcinellus, Hemipalama, Heteropoda, Heteropygia, Leimonites, Limicola, Limnocinclus, Machetes, Machophilus, Micropalama, Neopisobia, Pavia, Pavoncella, Pelidna, Philomachus, Pisobia, Platyrhamphus, Schoeniclus, Schoeniculus, Symphemia, Tryngites.
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Calidris  Sanderling C. alba) Specific name Charadrius calidris Linnaeus, 1766 (= syn. Calidris alba); "GENUS 89. CALIDRIS.  Arenaria Meyer, Bechstein (Sandläufer Germ.  Sanderling Angl.).   Rostrum mediocre, tenue, rectum, teretiusculum, maxillae dertro paullulum incrassato, in apicem deflexo.  Nares parvae, oblongo-ovales.  Alae volatiles.  Pedes grallarii, mediocres, cursorii, tridactyli, digitis ad basin usque fissis.  Acropodia scutulata.  Species: Charadrius Calidris Lin." (Illiger 1811); "Calidris ILLIGER, Prodromus, 1811, 249. Type, by [tautonymy and] monotypy, Charadrius calidris LINNÆUS = Tringa leucophæa PALLAS [= Trynga alba Pallas]." (AOU Check-List, ed. 3, 1910, 118); ""Tringa leucophaea" Anonymous (in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. d'Ois., p. 32, 1764—northern coast of Holland) is not binomial." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (3), p. 171, footnote).   
Synon. ArenariaArenula, Crocethia.

calidris
Gr. καλιδρις kalidris or σκαλιδρις skalidris  speckled, grey-coloured waterside bird mentioned by Aristotle, not further identified, but later conjectured to be a sandpiper or a wagtail.
● ex "Petite Maubèche grise" of Brisson 1760 (syn. Calidris alba).
● "Der südliche Schlammläufer.  Pelidna calidris, Br. (Tringa alpina, Linn.)" (Brehm 1831) (syn. Calidris alpina).
● ex “Rusticola sylvatica” of Gessner 1555, and Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and “Calidris” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Calidris canutus).
● ex “Totanus” of Belon 1555, and Brisson 1760, “Calidris Bellonii” of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and “Gallinula erythropus major” of Willughby 1676, Ray 1713, and Marsigli 1726 (syn. Tringa totanus).
● ex “American Nightingale” of Edwards 1750 (unident.).

alpina / alpinum / alpinus
L. alpinus  alpine, of high mountains, of the Alps  < alpes or alpis  high mountains, Alps.
● "78. TRINGA.  ...  alpina.  7. T. testaceo-fusca, pectore nigricante, rectricibus cinereo-albidis, pedibus fuscescentibus.  Habitat in Lapponia. AdlerheimMagnitudo Sturni; Abdomen album." (Linnaeus 1758) (Calidris).
● ex “Fauvette des Alpes” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 668, fig. 2, and “Collared Stare” and “Alpine Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Prunella collaris).
● ex “Choucas des Alpes” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Pyrrhocorax graculus).

SUBSPECIES

Dunlin (pacifica/arcticola)
SCI Name: Calidris alpina pacifica/arcticola
CALIDRIS
(Scolopacidae; Red Knot C. canutus) Specific name Tringa calidris J. Gmelin, 1789 (= syn. Calidris canutus); "Knüffel, Calidris.  Schnabel walzenförmig, gegen die Spitze hin dicker, glatt.  Mittlere und äußere Zehe etwas verbunden.   Tringa calidris, arenaria u.a." (Merrem 1804); "LES MAUBÈCHES. (CALIDRIS. Cuv.) (1)  ...  La grande Maubèche grise, Sandpiper et Canut, des Anglais. (Tringa grisea et Tr. Canutus. Gm.) Le plum. d'hiver, enl. 366. Edw. 276.  ...  (1) CALIDRIS, oiseau cendré et tacheté, fréquentant les rivières et les bois. Arist.  Brisson l'applique à l'une des espèces de ce genre" (Cuvier 1817); "Calidris Anonymous = Merrem, Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 2, no. 168, 8 June, 1804, col. 542.  Type, by tautonymy, Tringa calidris Gmelin = Tringa canutus Linné." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 280). 
Var. Calidridris, CallidrisCallydris, Calydris, Chalidris.   
Synon. Actia, Actodromas, Ancylocheilus, Anteliotringa, Aphriza, Arquatella, Canutus, Cinclus, Delopygia, Ereunetes, Erolia, Eurynorhynchus, Falcinellus, Hemipalama, Heteropoda, Heteropygia, Leimonites, Limicola, Limnocinclus, Machetes, Machophilus, Micropalama, Neopisobia, Pavia, Pavoncella, Pelidna, Philomachus, Pisobia, Platyrhamphus, Schoeniclus, Schoeniculus, Symphemia, Tryngites.
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Calidris  Sanderling C. alba) Specific name Charadrius calidris Linnaeus, 1766 (= syn. Calidris alba); "GENUS 89. CALIDRIS.  Arenaria Meyer, Bechstein (Sandläufer Germ.  Sanderling Angl.).   Rostrum mediocre, tenue, rectum, teretiusculum, maxillae dertro paullulum incrassato, in apicem deflexo.  Nares parvae, oblongo-ovales.  Alae volatiles.  Pedes grallarii, mediocres, cursorii, tridactyli, digitis ad basin usque fissis.  Acropodia scutulata.  Species: Charadrius Calidris Lin." (Illiger 1811); "Calidris ILLIGER, Prodromus, 1811, 249. Type, by [tautonymy and] monotypy, Charadrius calidris LINNÆUS = Tringa leucophæa PALLAS [= Trynga alba Pallas]." (AOU Check-List, ed. 3, 1910, 118); ""Tringa leucophaea" Anonymous (in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. d'Ois., p. 32, 1764—northern coast of Holland) is not binomial." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (3), p. 171, footnote).   
Synon. ArenariaArenula, Crocethia.

Dunlin (hudsonia)
SCI Name: Calidris alpina hudsonia
hudsonia / hudsonias / hudsonica / hudsonicus / hudsonis / hudsonius
Hudson Bay or Hudsons Bay, or Hudson Straits, Canada (named after Capt. Henry Hudson (d. 1611) English navigator and explorer, cast adrift there by his mutinous crew).
● ex “Hudsonian Wagtail” of Latham 1802 (syn. Anthus rubescens).
● ex “Ash-colour’d Heron from North America” of Edwards 1750, and “Héron de la Baye de Hudson” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Ardea herodias).
● ex “Turnstone from Hudson’s Bay” of Edwards 1750 (syn. Arenaria interpres).
● ex “Bittern from Hudson’s Bay” of Edwards 1750 (syn. Botaurus lentiginosus).
● ex “Ring-tailed Hawk” of Edwards 1750 (Circus).
● ex “Hudsonian Thrush” (= ☼) of Pennant 1785 (syn. Euphagus carolinus).
● ex “Hudsonian Godwit” of Latham 1787, and Pennant 1787 (syn. Limosa haemastica).
● ex “Eskimaux Curlew” of Pennant 1785, and “Hudsonian Curlew” of Latham 1787 (subsp. Numenius phaeopus).
● ex “Little Hawk Owl” of Edwards 1743, “Strix freti Hudsonis” of Brisson 1760, “Caparacoch” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Hawk Owl” of Latham 1781, and Pennant 1785 (syn. Surnia ulula caparoch).
● ex “Hudsonian White-headed Oriole” of Pennant 1785 (unident. partial albino).

Dunlin (arctica)
SCI Name: Calidris alpina arctica
arctica
L. arcticus northern, arctic < Gr. αρκτικος arktikos northern < αρκτος arktos north.
● "63. ALCA.  ...  arctica.  3. A. rostro compresso-ancipiti sulcato sulcis quatuor, oculorum orbita temporibusque albis. Fn. svec. 118.  Anas arctica. Clus. exot. 104. Raj. av. 120. Worm. mus. 302. Olear. mus. t. 15. f. 5. Will. orn. 244. t. 65. Raj. av. 120. Alb. av. 2. p. 73. t. 78. 79.  Lunda. Gesn. av. 725. Oelig. mus. 2. f. 11. t. 11. f. 21.  Habitat in Europæ borealis oceano." (Linnaeus 1758) (Fratercula).
● "68. COLYMBUS.  ...  arcticus.  1. C. pedibus palmatis indivisis, gutture nigro-purpurascente. Fn. svec. 121. It. gotl. 341.  Colymbus arcticus Lumme. Worm. mus. 304. t. 305. Will. orn. 259. t. 62. Raj. av. 125. Oelig. mus. I. f. 11. t. 1. f. 2.  Mergus maximus ferroensis s. arcticus. Clus. exot. 102.  Colymbus collo rubro. Edw. av. 97. t. 97. & 146. t. 140.  Habitat in Europa & America boreali; lacustrisMas sub gula purpurascens, Femina vero nigra; monogama; ova 2. in littore; nequit incedere; feris exosa; clamitando tempestate præsagit; migrat in proximam GermaniamConfr. Colymbus maximus caudatus. Alb. av. I. p. 78. t. 82. Raj. av. 125. n. 4. Will. orn. 258. t. 62. f. 1. femina." (Linnaeus 1758) (Gavia).

Dunlin (schinzii)
SCI Name: Calidris alpina schinzii
schinzii
Prof. Heinrich Rudolf Schinz (1777-1861) Swiss zoologist, physician (subsp. Calidris alpina, syn. Calidris bairdii, syn. Calidris fuscicollis).

Dunlin (alpina)
SCI Name: Calidris alpina alpina
alpina / alpinum / alpinus
L. alpinus  alpine, of high mountains, of the Alps  < alpes or alpis  high mountains, Alps.
● "78. TRINGA.  ...  alpina.  7. T. testaceo-fusca, pectore nigricante, rectricibus cinereo-albidis, pedibus fuscescentibus.  Habitat in Lapponia. AdlerheimMagnitudo Sturni; Abdomen album." (Linnaeus 1758) (Calidris).
● ex “Fauvette des Alpes” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 668, fig. 2, and “Collared Stare” and “Alpine Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Prunella collaris).
● ex “Choucas des Alpes” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Pyrrhocorax graculus).

Dunlin (sakhalina Group)
SCI Name: Calidris alpina [sakhalina Group]
CALIDRIS
(Scolopacidae; Red Knot C. canutus) Specific name Tringa calidris J. Gmelin, 1789 (= syn. Calidris canutus); "Knüffel, Calidris.  Schnabel walzenförmig, gegen die Spitze hin dicker, glatt.  Mittlere und äußere Zehe etwas verbunden.   Tringa calidris, arenaria u.a." (Merrem 1804); "LES MAUBÈCHES. (CALIDRIS. Cuv.) (1)  ...  La grande Maubèche grise, Sandpiper et Canut, des Anglais. (Tringa grisea et Tr. Canutus. Gm.) Le plum. d'hiver, enl. 366. Edw. 276.  ...  (1) CALIDRIS, oiseau cendré et tacheté, fréquentant les rivières et les bois. Arist.  Brisson l'applique à l'une des espèces de ce genre" (Cuvier 1817); "Calidris Anonymous = Merrem, Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 2, no. 168, 8 June, 1804, col. 542.  Type, by tautonymy, Tringa calidris Gmelin = Tringa canutus Linné." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 280). 
Var. Calidridris, CallidrisCallydris, Calydris, Chalidris.   
Synon. Actia, Actodromas, Ancylocheilus, Anteliotringa, Aphriza, Arquatella, Canutus, Cinclus, Delopygia, Ereunetes, Erolia, Eurynorhynchus, Falcinellus, Hemipalama, Heteropoda, Heteropygia, Leimonites, Limicola, Limnocinclus, Machetes, Machophilus, Micropalama, Neopisobia, Pavia, Pavoncella, Pelidna, Philomachus, Pisobia, Platyrhamphus, Schoeniclus, Schoeniculus, Symphemia, Tryngites.
• (Scolopacidae; syn. Calidris  Sanderling C. alba) Specific name Charadrius calidris Linnaeus, 1766 (= syn. Calidris alba); "GENUS 89. CALIDRIS.  Arenaria Meyer, Bechstein (Sandläufer Germ.  Sanderling Angl.).   Rostrum mediocre, tenue, rectum, teretiusculum, maxillae dertro paullulum incrassato, in apicem deflexo.  Nares parvae, oblongo-ovales.  Alae volatiles.  Pedes grallarii, mediocres, cursorii, tridactyli, digitis ad basin usque fissis.  Acropodia scutulata.  Species: Charadrius Calidris Lin." (Illiger 1811); "Calidris ILLIGER, Prodromus, 1811, 249. Type, by [tautonymy and] monotypy, Charadrius calidris LINNÆUS = Tringa leucophæa PALLAS [= Trynga alba Pallas]." (AOU Check-List, ed. 3, 1910, 118); ""Tringa leucophaea" Anonymous (in Vroeg's Cat. Rais. d'Ois., p. 32, 1764—northern coast of Holland) is not binomial." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (3), p. 171, footnote).   
Synon. ArenariaArenula, Crocethia.