Eurasian Nightjar / Caprimulgus europaeus

Eurasian Nightjar / Caprimulgus europaeus

Eurasian Nightjar

SCI Name:  Caprimulgus europaeus
Protonym:  Caprimulgus europaeus Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.193
Category:  Caprimulgiformes / Caprimulgidae /
Taxonomy Code:  eurnig1
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden, ex Fauna Suec.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

CAPRIMULGUS
(Caprimulgidae; Ϯ European Nightjar C. europaeus) L. caprimulgus  nightjar  < capra  nanny-goat  < caper, capri  billy-goat; mulgere  to milk; “Those called goat-suckers  ...  enter the shepherds’ stalls and fly to the goats’ udders in order to suck their milk, which injures the udder and makes it perish, and the goats they have milked in this way gradually go blind” (Pliny X, lvi (ed. Rackham 1983)); this unfounded rustic superstition was for long associated with the European Nightjar; "NIGHT-HAWK (C. popetue). I have noticed, when skinning this bird, that the male, in spring, exhales a strong hircine odor.  If this is common to all birds of the family, it may have added apparent reason to the superstition from which the family name is derived." (Coues 1874); "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  Rostrum incurvum, minimum, subulatum, basi depressum.  Vibrissæ ad os serie ciliari.  Rictus amplissimus.   ...   Caprimulgus genere differt ab Hirundine, uti Strix a Falcone, Phalæna a Papilione." (Linnaeus 1758); "Caprimulgus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 193. Type, by tautonymy, Caprimulgus europaeus Linné (Caprimulgus, pre-binomial specific name in synonymy." (Peters, 1940, IV, p. 196). Linnaeus's Caprimulgus, the final avian genus listed in his historic ground-breaking work, comprised two species (C. europæus, C. americanus). 
Synon. Allasma, Capripeda, Climacurus, Cosmetornis, Creapyga, Crotema, Diaphorasma, Eximiornis, Hypsiphornis, Macrodipteryx, Nyctichelidon, Nycticircus, Nyctitypus, Nyctipornis, Nyctisyrigmus, Nyctivociferator, Phalaenivora, Rossornis, Scotornis, Semeiophorus, Stelidopterus, Vociferator.

caprimulgus
L. caprimulgus  nightjar  < capra  nanny-goat  < caper, capri  billy-goat; mulgere  to milk (cf. Gr. αιγοθηλας aigothēlas  goatsucker).

europae / europaea / europaeus / europeus
L. Europaeus European < Europa or Europe Europe (Gr. myth. Europe, daughter of Agenor King of Phoenicia and mother to Sarpedon and Minos by Jupiter)).
● "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  ...  europæus.  1. C. narium tubis obsoletis.  Hirundo cauda integra, ore setis ciliato. Fn. svec. 248.  Caprimulgus. Bell. av. 28. a. Gesn. av. 242. Jonst. av. 53. t. 20. Will. orn. 70. t. 14. Raj. av. 26. n. 1. Alb. av. I. p. 10. t. 10. Frisch. av. . . t. 101. Catesb. car. I. p. 8. t. 8.  β. Caprimulgus minor americanus. Catesb. car. 3. p. 16. t. 16. Edw. av. 63. t. 63.  Habitat in Europa & America.  Varietatem β. judico ex macula alba alarum & rectricum, ut in mare avis europeæVictitat Phalænis & insectis nocturnis. Nidus orbiculatus e luto inter rupes." (Linnaeus 1758) (Caprimulgus).
● Erroneous TL. Southern Europe, Greece (= India) (syn. Francolinus francolinus asiae).
● Île Europa, Mozambique Channel (subsp. Phaethon lepturus).
● "55. SITTA.  ...  europæa.  1. S. rectricibus nigris: lateralibus quatuor infra apicem albis. Fn. svec. 182.  Sitta s. Picus cinereus. Gesn. av. 711. Aldr. orn. l. 12. c. 38. Will. ornith. 98. t. 33. Raj. av. 47. Alb. av. 2. p. 27. t. 28. Frisch. av. . . t. 39. f. 2.  β. Sitta capite nigro & Sitta capite fusco. Catesb. carol. 1. p. 22. t. 22.  Habitat in Europæ, Americæ truncis arborum larvas sub cortice effodiens; Nuces rostro perforat & edit. Nidum struens reperto congruo foramine arboris, illud limo oblinit pro capacitate ingressus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Sitta).
● Europe; ex “Merle de montagne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 182 (syn. Turdus torquatus).

SUBSPECIES

Eurasian Nightjar (europaeus)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus
europae / europaea / europaeus / europeus
L. Europaeus European < Europa or Europe Europe (Gr. myth. Europe, daughter of Agenor King of Phoenicia and mother to Sarpedon and Minos by Jupiter)).
● "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  ...  europæus.  1. C. narium tubis obsoletis.  Hirundo cauda integra, ore setis ciliato. Fn. svec. 248.  Caprimulgus. Bell. av. 28. a. Gesn. av. 242. Jonst. av. 53. t. 20. Will. orn. 70. t. 14. Raj. av. 26. n. 1. Alb. av. I. p. 10. t. 10. Frisch. av. . . t. 101. Catesb. car. I. p. 8. t. 8.  β. Caprimulgus minor americanus. Catesb. car. 3. p. 16. t. 16. Edw. av. 63. t. 63.  Habitat in Europa & America.  Varietatem β. judico ex macula alba alarum & rectricum, ut in mare avis europeæVictitat Phalænis & insectis nocturnis. Nidus orbiculatus e luto inter rupes." (Linnaeus 1758) (Caprimulgus).
● Erroneous TL. Southern Europe, Greece (= India) (syn. Francolinus francolinus asiae).
● Île Europa, Mozambique Channel (subsp. Phaethon lepturus).
● "55. SITTA.  ...  europæa.  1. S. rectricibus nigris: lateralibus quatuor infra apicem albis. Fn. svec. 182.  Sitta s. Picus cinereus. Gesn. av. 711. Aldr. orn. l. 12. c. 38. Will. ornith. 98. t. 33. Raj. av. 47. Alb. av. 2. p. 27. t. 28. Frisch. av. . . t. 39. f. 2.  β. Sitta capite nigro & Sitta capite fusco. Catesb. carol. 1. p. 22. t. 22.  Habitat in Europæ, Americæ truncis arborum larvas sub cortice effodiens; Nuces rostro perforat & edit. Nidum struens reperto congruo foramine arboris, illud limo oblinit pro capacitate ingressus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Sitta).
● Europe; ex “Merle de montagne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 182 (syn. Turdus torquatus).

Eurasian Nightjar (meridionalis)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus europaeus meridionalis
meridionale / meridionalis
L. meridionalis  southern  < meridies  south.
● Cayenne; ex “Rufous-headed Falcon” of Latham 1787 (Heterospizias).
● South Island, New Zealand; ex “Southern brown Parrot” of Latham 1781 (Nestor).
● Erroneous TL. Bahamas (= Trinidad) (syn. Trogon violaceus).

Eurasian Nightjar (sarudnyi)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus europaeus sarudnyi
sarudnyi
Dr Nikolai Alekseyvich Zarudnyi (1859-1919) Russian ornithologist, collector in Turkistan and Persia, Curator of Tashkent Mus. 1885-1903 (subsp. Caprimulgus europaeus, syn. Francolinus francolinus, subsp. Jynx torquilla, subsp. Muscicapa striata, syn. Oenanthe lugens persica, syn. Turdus pilaris, syn. Turdus viscivorus bonapartei).

Eurasian Nightjar (unwini)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus europaeus unwini
unwini
Col. William Heathcote Unwin (1840-1929) British Army in India 1857-1884 (subsp. Caprimulgus europaeus, syn. Cygnus olor).

Eurasian Nightjar (plumipes)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus europaeus plumipes
plumipes
L. plumipes, plumipedis  feather-footed  < pluma plume, small feather; pes, pedis  foot  < Gr. πους pous, ποδος podos  foot.
● ex “Buse Gantée” of Levaillant 1797, pl. 18 (syn. Buteo lagopus).

Eurasian Nightjar (dementievi)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus europaeus dementievi
dementievi / dementjevi
Prof. Georgiy Petrovich Dementiev (1898-1969) Russian ornithologist (subsp. Accipiter nisus, syn. Alauda arvensis dulcivox, subsp. Caprimulgus europaeus).