Sombre Nightjar / Caprimulgus fraenatus

Sombre Nightjar / Caprimulgus fraenatus

Sombre Nightjar

SCI Name:  Caprimulgus fraenatus
Protonym:  Caprimulgus fraenatus Ann.Mus.Civ.Stor.Nat.Genova 21 p.118
Taxonomy:  Caprimulgiformes / Caprimulgidae /
Taxonomy Code:  somnig1
Type Locality:  Daimbi, Shoa.
Publish Year:  1884
IUCN Status:  


(Caprimulgidae; Ϯ European Nightjar C. europaeus) L. caprimulgus  nightjar  < capra  nanny-goat  < caper, capri  billy-goat; mulgere  to milk; “Those called goat-suckers  ...  enter the shepherds’ stalls and fly to the goats’ udders in order to suck their milk, which injures the udder and makes it perish, and the goats they have milked in this way gradually go blind” (Pliny X, lvi (ed. Rackham 1983)); this unfounded rustic superstition was for long associated with the European Nightjar; "NIGHT-HAWK (C. popetue). I have noticed, when skinning this bird, that the male, in spring, exhales a strong hircine odor.  If this is common to all birds of the family, it may have added apparent reason to the superstition from which the family name is derived." (Coues 1874); "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  Rostrum incurvum, minimum, subulatum, basi depressum.  Vibrissæ ad os serie ciliari.  Rictus amplissimus.   ...   Caprimulgus genere differt ab Hirundine, uti Strix a Falcone, Phalæna a Papilione." (Linnaeus 1758); "Caprimulgus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 193. Type, by tautonymy, Caprimulgus europaeus Linné (Caprimulgus, pre-binomial specific name in synonymy." (Peters, 1940, IV, p. 196). Linnaeus's Caprimulgus, the final avian genus listed in his historic ground-breaking work, comprised two species (C. europæus, C. americanus). 
Synon. Allasma, Capripeda, Climacurus, Cosmetornis, Creapyga, Crotema, Diaphorasma, Eximiornis, Hypsiphornis, Macrodipteryx, Nyctichelidon, Nycticircus, Nyctitypus, Nyctipornis, Nyctisyrigmus, Nyctivociferator, Phalaenivora, Rossornis, Scotornis, Semeiophorus, Stelidopterus, Vociferator.

L. caprimulgus  nightjar  < capra  nanny-goat  < caper, capri  billy-goat; mulgere  to milk (cf. Gr. αιγοθηλας aigothēlas  goatsucker).

fraenata / fraenatus
L. frenatus  bridled  < frenare  to bridle  < frena, frenorum  bridle, reins  < frenum  rein, bridle  < frendere  to grind the teeth.
• “Sp. 96.  Caprimulgus fraenatus, nov. sp.?  ...  Ho dato a questa specie il nome specifico fraenatus per causa delle piume bianche che si trovano sopra le redini.  Si comprende facilmente come con qualche esitazione abbia descritto come nuova la specie suddetta, considerando la grande difficoltà che s' incontra nello identificare le specie del genere Caprimulgus.” (Salvadori 1884) (Caprimulgus).
• "1.  Merganetta frænata, sp. n.   (Plate V.)    Adult male.  Similar to the male of M. armata, but differs in having a black band over and before the eyes joining the black of the pileum, so that on the lores, anteriorly, there is a triangular white patch completely separated from the white superciliary stripe" (Salvadori 1895) (syn. Merganetta armata).