Helmeted Guineafowl / Numida meleagris

Helmeted Guineafowl / Numida meleagris

Helmeted Guineafowl

SCI Name:  Numida meleagris
Protonym:  Phasianus Meleagris Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.158
Category:  Galliformes / Numididae /
Taxonomy Code:  helgui
Type Locality:  Africa = Nubia, upper Nile, ex Hasselquist.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

NUMIDA
(Numididae; Ϯ Helmeted Guineafowl N. meleagris) L. Numida African, Numidian (ancient Numidia, between Mauretania Caesariensis and Africa-Carthago, encompassed the north-eastern parts of modern Algeria); "102. NUMIDA.  Caput collo compresso colorato cornutum.  Palearia carunculacea, ad latera maxillæ inferioris.  Rostrum cera instructum nares recipiente." (Linnaeus 1766): based on "Gallina Guineensis" of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and other authors, "Gallina africana" of Marcgrave 1648, "Peintade" of Dodart 1676, "Numida" of Linnaeus 1754, "Gallina vertice corneo" of Hasselqvist 1757, and Phasianus Meleagris Linnaeus, 1758; "Numida Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 273. Type, by monotypy, Numida meleagris Linné = Phasianus meleagris Linné." (Peters 1934, II, 134). Linnaeus's Numida comprised a single species. 
Var. Numidia.   
Synon. Arquata, Gallina, Pintado, Querelea.

numida
Genus Numida Linnaeus, 1766, guineafowl.

MELEAGRIS
(Meleagrididae; Ϯ Wild Turkey M. gallopavo) Gr. μελεαγρις meleagris, μελεαγριδος meleagridos  guineafowl; "88. MELEAGRIS.  Caput carunculis spongiosis tectum." (Linnaeus 1758); "Meleagris Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 156. Type, by tautonymy, Meleagris gallopavo Linné (Meleagris, prebinomial specific name in synonymy.)" (Peters 1934, II, 139). Linnaeus's Meleagris comprised three species (M. Gallopavo, M. cristata, M. Satyra). The names Turkey, Turkeycock and Turkeyhen were used for guineafowl from the 16th to the early 18th centuries because they were brought from Africa to Europe through the Ottoman or Turkish dominions. By this confusion Linnaeus used the generic term Meleagris for the American Wild Turkey, which was unknown to the ancients. When the guineafowl and turkey were subsequently distinguished as separate species Turkey was retained for the American bird.   
Var. Meliagris, Melaeacris.   
Synon. Agriocharis, CochramusEumeleagris, Cynchramus, Gallopavo, Meleagrops, Parapavo, Pseudotaon.
● (syn. Numida Ϯ Tufted Guineafowl N. meleagris) "Gallus vertice corneo. . . .la Peintade" (Linnaeus 1756) (cf. specific name Phasianus meleagris Linnaeus, 1758); "48. POULE PEINTARDE, in 't Latyn Meleagris.  By LINNÆUS een soort van Hoen. Gallus Syst. Nat. gesl. 68.  Pientarde by PERR. Mem. des Anim. 134 is 'er eene zeer goede figuur yan" (Moehring 1758).

meleagris
L. meleagris, meleagridis  guineafowl  < Gr. μελεαγρις meleagris,  μελεαγριδος meleagridos  guineafowl (e.g. spotted and streaked).
● "OMeleagris Wagl.  ...  In der Färbung ist dieses prachtvolle Zahnhuhn mit unserem europäischen Frankolin, aber noch mehr mit dem madagascarischen (Perd. madagasc. et P. perlata Lath.) verwandt, und bildet dadurch den Uebergang zu diesen Hühnern von den Zahnhühnern. — Hernandez beschreibt es nicht." (Wagler 1832) (syn. Cyrtonyx montezumae).
● "Magnitudo Galli  ...  Occiput et nucha plumis arriguis, linearibus, (ut in gallis castratis sunt) gryseo-albis" (Pallas 1811) (syn. Neophron percnopterus).
● "90. PHASIANUS.  ...  Meleagris.  2. P. vertice calloso, temporibus carunculatis.  Gallina vertice corneo. Hasselqv. iter. 274.  Gallus vertice corneo. Syst. nat. 28.  Gallina guinea. Worm. mus. 297.  Gallina africana. Marcgr. bras. 78.  Gallus niger, maculis ovalibus & orbiculatis. Barr. av. 79.*  Gallina guineensis. Worm. mus. 297. t. 297. Olear. mus.  . t. 15. f. 3. Raj. av. 52. Alb. av. 2. p. 32. t. 35. Will. orn. 162. t. 26. Aldr. av. l. 14. c. 13.  Habitat in Africa." (Linnaeus 1758) (Numida).

SUBSPECIES

Helmeted Guineafowl (Moroccan)
SCI Name: Numida meleagris sabyi
sabyi
Lt. Paul Saby (fl. 1905) French Inspector of Forests in Algeria 1905 (‡subsp. Numida meleagris).

Helmeted Guineafowl (West African)
SCI Name: Numida meleagris galeatus
galeata / galeatum / galeatus
L. galeatus  helmeted  < galea  helmet (usually refers to a full and conspicuous crest).
● ex “Red-crowned Parrot” of Latham 1802 (syn. Callocephalon fimbriatum).
● ex “Galeated Cassowary” of Latham 1785 (syn. Casuarius casuarius).
● ex “Gobe-mouche huppé de Madagascar” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 189, and “Drongo” of de Buffon 1770-1786 (syn. Dicrurus forficatus).
● ex “Yahaná” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 379 (Gallinula).
● (syn. Knipolegus lophotes) (= ♀).
● (syn. Knipolegus nigerrimus) (= ♂).
● ex "Figuier huppé de Cayenne" of d'Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 391, fig. 1 (Lophotriccus).
● ex “Hocco du Méxique” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Pauxi pauxi).
● ex “Calao à casque rond” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 933, and “Helmet Hornbill” of Latham 1781 (syn. Rhinoplax vigil).

Helmeted Guineafowl (Helmeted)
SCI Name: Numida meleagris meleagris/somaliensis
NUMIDA
(Numididae; Ϯ Helmeted Guineafowl N. meleagris) L. Numida African, Numidian (ancient Numidia, between Mauretania Caesariensis and Africa-Carthago, encompassed the north-eastern parts of modern Algeria); "102. NUMIDA.  Caput collo compresso colorato cornutum.  Palearia carunculacea, ad latera maxillæ inferioris.  Rostrum cera instructum nares recipiente." (Linnaeus 1766): based on "Gallina Guineensis" of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and other authors, "Gallina africana" of Marcgrave 1648, "Peintade" of Dodart 1676, "Numida" of Linnaeus 1754, "Gallina vertice corneo" of Hasselqvist 1757, and Phasianus Meleagris Linnaeus, 1758; "Numida Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 273. Type, by monotypy, Numida meleagris Linné = Phasianus meleagris Linné." (Peters 1934, II, 134). Linnaeus's Numida comprised a single species. 
Var. Numidia.   
Synon. Arquata, Gallina, Pintado, Querelea.

Helmeted Guineafowl (Reichenow's)
SCI Name: Numida meleagris reichenowi
reichenovi / reichenovii / reichenowi
Prof. Georg Anton Eugen Reichenow (1847-1941) German ornithologist (subsp. Aerodramus spodiopygius, Anthreptes, syn. Anthus spinolettaBatis, subsp. Bocagia minuta, syn. Chlorophoneus multicolor, Cinnyris, subsp. Cisticola brachypterus,  CrithagraCryptospiza, subsp. Dendropicos gabonensis, Drepanorhynchus, syn. Dryocopus martius, subsp. Edolisoma schisticeps, syn. Emberiza goslingi, syn. Galerida cristata arenicola, syn. Gymnoris pyrgita, syn. Illadopsis fulvescens (ex Turdinus rufiventris Reichenow, 1893), syn. Lagonosticta rubricata haematocephala, syn. Lanius collurio (ex Lanius affinis Fischer & Reichenow, 1884), subsp. Melaenornis chocolatinus, syn. Merops viridissimus, syn. Milvus migrans, syn. Myrmecocichla albifrons frontalis, subsp. Numida meleagris, syn. Onychognathus fulgidus hartlaubii, subsp. Oriolus larvatus, subsp. Pachycephala hyperythra, Pionus, Pitta, subsp. Ploceus baglafecht, subsp. Poicephalus meyeri, syn. Prodotiscus zambesiae ellenbecki, subsp. Psalidoprocne pristoptera, subsp. Pteroglossus bitorquatus, syn. Ptyonoprogne obsoleta, syn. Pycnonotus xanthopygos, subsp. Rhipidura dryas, subsp. Sarothrura elegans, subsp. Sasia ochracea, subsp. Schistolais leucopogon, Streptopelia, syn. Symposiachrus axillaris fallax, syn. Tachymarptis aequatorialis, subsp. Tauraco livingstonii, subsp. Trochocercus nitens, syn. Turdoides jardineii emini, subsp. Tychaedon leucosticta, syn. Urorhipis rufifrons rufidorsalis, subsp. Zosterops senegalensis).

Helmeted Guineafowl (Tufted)
SCI Name: Numida meleagris [mitratus Group]
NUMIDA
(Numididae; Ϯ Helmeted Guineafowl N. meleagris) L. Numida African, Numidian (ancient Numidia, between Mauretania Caesariensis and Africa-Carthago, encompassed the north-eastern parts of modern Algeria); "102. NUMIDA.  Caput collo compresso colorato cornutum.  Palearia carunculacea, ad latera maxillæ inferioris.  Rostrum cera instructum nares recipiente." (Linnaeus 1766): based on "Gallina Guineensis" of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, and other authors, "Gallina africana" of Marcgrave 1648, "Peintade" of Dodart 1676, "Numida" of Linnaeus 1754, "Gallina vertice corneo" of Hasselqvist 1757, and Phasianus Meleagris Linnaeus, 1758; "Numida Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, 1766, p. 273. Type, by monotypy, Numida meleagris Linné = Phasianus meleagris Linné." (Peters 1934, II, 134). Linnaeus's Numida comprised a single species. 
Var. Numidia.   
Synon. Arquata, Gallina, Pintado, Querelea.