Protonym: Picus imperialis Proc.Zool.Soc.London Pt2 no.21 p.140
Taxonomy: Piciformes / Picidae / Campephilus
Taxonomy Code: impwoo1
Type Locality: 'California'' = Jalisco, Mexico.
Publish Year: 1832
IUCN Status: Critically Endangered
(Picidae; Ϯ Ivory-billed Woodpecker C. principalis) Gr. καμπη kampē caterpillar; φιλος philos lover; "CAMPEPHILUS, n. Picus, L. Sw. Dendrocopus, Boie. C. principalis, (L.) n., Pl. enl. 690." (G. Gray 1840); "Campephilus G. R. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 54. Type, by original designation, Picus principalis Linnaeus." (AOU Checklist, 7th ed., 1998, p. 346).
Var. Campiphilus, Campophilus.
Synon. Cniparchus, Dendrocopus, Ipocrantor, Megalopipo, Megapicos, Phloeoceastes, Scapaneus.
L. imperialis imperial < imperium power, command, empire < imperare to rule over (e.g. large, impressive, clad in imperial purple).
• "Mr. Vigors took the same opportunity of describing and naming two Parrots in the Society's Collection, one of which, now alive in the Menagerie, distinguished by a brilliant purple plumage over the head, nape, and breast, and which came from South America, be characterized under the name of Psittacus augustus" (Vigors 1837); "Psittacus augustus Vigors, P. Z. S. (1836), Jan. 16, 1837, 80, for the Imperial Parrot of Dominica, is preoccupied by Psittacus augustus Shaw, Mus. Lever.., 1792, 59, pl. 2. This will necessitate a new name for Amazona augusta (Vigors), which may be called Amazona imperialis, this name having stood for several years in Mr. Ridgway's MSS." (Richmond 1899) (Amazona).
• Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor (1552-1612; reigned 1576-1611 (deposed)) King of Hungary and Croatia, King of Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, patron of the arts and the occult (‡syn. Aphanapteryx bonasia).
• "Ardea imperialis, nom. nov. This large Heron has been generally known as Ardea insignis, the reference being given as Hume, 'Stray Feathers,' vi. p. 470, 1878. But the name insignis is preoccupied, for it is first given by Hodgson in 1844, Zool. Misc. p. 86, where it is a nomen nudum. This is then cited by Gray in 1846 as a synonym of nobilis Blyth (Gray, Cat. Birds Nepal, p. 133), and again as a synonym of sumatrana Raffles by Gray in 1871 (Handb. Gen. Sp. Birds, p. 27). The name consequently cannot be resuscitated by Hume for his bird." (Stuart Baker 1929) (Ardea).
• "In this respect it as far exceeds the ivory-billed Woodpecker of the United States, Picus principalis, as the latter does the Pic. Martius of Europe. Mr. Gould described it as the PICUS IMPERIALIS ... this species is readily distinguishable from the Pic. principalis by its much larger size; by the length of its occipital crest, the pendent silky feathers of which measure nearly 4 inches" (Gould 1832) (‡Campephilus).
• "6. GALLINAGO IMPERIALIS, sp. n. ... There can be no question, however, that our bird shows considerable rapprochement towards true Scolopax, though we think it best to keep it within the limits of Gallinago, its nearest structural allies being G. stricklandi and G. jamesoni, both of which have short robust tarsi and the tibiæ feathered, as in the present species, nearly down to the tarsal joint." (P. Sclater & Salvin 1869) (Gallinago).
• Khai Dinh (1885-1925) Emperor of Annam 1916-1925 (Lophura edwardsi x Lophura nycthemera hybrid).
UPPERCASE: current genus
Uppercase first letter: generic synonym
● and ● See: generic homonyms
lowercase: species and subspecies
●: early names, variants, mispellings
†: type species
Gr.: ancient Greek
<: derived from
syn: synonym of
/: separates historical and modern geographic names
ex: based on
TL: type locality
OD: original diagnosis (genus) or original description (species)