Large-tailed Nightjar / Caprimulgus macrurus

Large-tailed Nightjar / Caprimulgus macrurus

Large-tailed Nightjar

SCI Name:  Caprimulgus macrurus
Protonym:  Caprimulgus macrurus Trans.Linn.Soc.London(1), 13 p.142
Taxonomy:  Caprimulgiformes / Caprimulgidae /
Taxonomy Code:  latnig2
Type Locality:  Java.
Publish Year:  1821
IUCN Status:  


(Caprimulgidae; Ϯ European Nightjar C. europaeus) L. caprimulgus  nightjar  < capra  nanny-goat  < caper, capri  billy-goat; mulgere  to milk; “Those called goat-suckers  ...  enter the shepherds’ stalls and fly to the goats’ udders in order to suck their milk, which injures the udder and makes it perish, and the goats they have milked in this way gradually go blind” (Pliny X, lvi (ed. Rackham 1983)); this unfounded rustic superstition was for long associated with the European Nightjar; "NIGHT-HAWK (C. popetue). I have noticed, when skinning this bird, that the male, in spring, exhales a strong hircine odor.  If this is common to all birds of the family, it may have added apparent reason to the superstition from which the family name is derived." (Coues 1874); "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  Rostrum incurvum, minimum, subulatum, basi depressum.  Vibrissæ ad os serie ciliari.  Rictus amplissimus.   ...   Caprimulgus genere differt ab Hirundine, uti Strix a Falcone, Phalæna a Papilione." (Linnaeus 1758); "Caprimulgus Linné, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, 1758, p. 193. Type, by tautonymy, Caprimulgus europaeus Linné (Caprimulgus, pre-binomial specific name in synonymy." (Peters, 1940, IV, p. 196). Linnaeus's Caprimulgus, the final avian genus listed in his historic ground-breaking work, comprised two species (C. europæus, C. americanus). 
Synon. Allasma, Capripeda, Climacurus, Cosmetornis, Creapyga, Crotema, Diaphorasma, Eximiornis, Hypsiphornis, Macrodipteryx, Nyctichelidon, Nycticircus, Nyctitypus, Nyctipornis, Nyctisyrigmus, Nyctivociferator, Phalaenivora, Rossornis, Scotornis, Semeiophorus, Stelidopterus, Vociferator.

L. caprimulgus  nightjar  < capra  nanny-goat  < caper, capri  billy-goat; mulgere  to milk (cf. Gr. αιγοθηλας aigothēlas  goatsucker).

macruros / macrurus
Gr. μακρος makros  long; -ουρος -ouros  -tailed  < ουρα oura  tail.
● ex “Long-tailed Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Kittacincla malabarica).


Large-tailed Nightjar (albonotatus)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus macrurus albonotatus
albonotata / albonotatus
L. albus  white; notatus  marked  < notare  to mark  < nota  mark  < noscere  to know.

Large-tailed Nightjar (bimaculatus)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus macrurus bimaculatus
bimaculata / bimaculatus
Mod. L. bimaculatus  two-spotted, double-spotted  < L. bi-  double  < bis  twice; maculatus  spotted  < maculare  to make spotted  < macula  spot.

Large-tailed Nightjar (johnsoni)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus macrurus johnsoni
johnsoni / johnsonii
● George Randall Johnson (1833-1919) English lawyer, cricketer, collector in Australia 1866, politician resident in New Zealand ?1866-1892 (Martin Schneider in litt.) (syn. Casuarius casuarius).
● Dr David Horn Johnson (1912-1996) US zoologist, Smithsonian Curator of Mammals 1941-1965, collector (subsp. Caprimulgus macrurus).
● Prof. Ned Keith Johnson (1932-2003) US ornithologist (subsp. Heliangelus regalis).
● Dr Hilary Richard Wright Johnson (1837-1901) Liberian statesman, President 1884-1892 (subsp. Illadopsis cleaveri).
● Prof. Oscar Walter Johnson (b. 1935) and Patricia Mary Johnson (1934-2013) US ornithologists (syn. Pluvialis fulva).
● Axel Axelson Johnson (1876-1958) Swedish Consul-Gen. for Thailand 1911-1912 (Björn Bergenholtz in litt.) (Pseudocolaptes, subsp. Pycnonotus flaviventris).

Large-tailed Nightjar (salvadorii)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus macrurus salvadorii
salvadori / salvadoriana / salvadorianus / salvadorii
Adelardo Tommaso Conte Salvadori Paleotti (1835-1923) Italian doctor, participated in Garibaldi’s second expedition to Sicily 1860, ornithologist at Museum of Zoology, Turin University 1863-1923 (syn. Acrochordopus burmeisteri, subsp. Aegotheles albertisii, syn. Amazilia cyanura, subsp. Argya caudata, syn. Bradypterus cinnamomeus, subsp. Caligavis subfrenata, subsp. Caprimulgus macrurus, syn. Casuarius casuarius, subsp. Chalcites crassirostris, syn. Chauna torquata, syn. Corvus orru, syn. Crateroscelis robusta, Cryptospiza, subsp. Dicaeum maugei, Ducula, subsp. Edolisoma morio, subsp. Eremomela icteropygialis, subsp. Eudynamys orientalis, syn. Gerygone sulphurea, subsp. Leptocoma aspasia, syn. Lichmera squamata, syn. Loriculus philippensis apicalis, subsp. Lorius lory, subsp. Lybius undatus, subsp. Merops philippinus, syn. Micropsitta pusio beccarii, syn. Nectarinia johnstoni nyikensis, syn. Nothocercus julius, subsp. Nothura darwinii, Onychognathus, subsp. Pachycephala hyperythra (ex Pachycephala sharpii Salvadori, 1896), syn. Papualestes cyanus subcyaneus, subsp. Paradisaea raggiana, syn. Pitohui kirhocephalus, syn. Platycercus icterotis, syn. Podiceps major, syn. Probosciger aterrimus goliath, syn. Psittacula derbiana, Psittaculirostris, subsp. Ptilinopus viridis, syn. Pycnonotus erythropthalmos, Salpornis, subsp. Sphecotheres vieilloti, syn. Spilornis cheela asturinus, subsp. Tanygnathus lucionensis, subsp. Tanysiptera sylvia, syn. Tregellasia leucops melanogenys, subsp. Treron calvus, subsp. Zenaida aurita, Zosterops) (see Soter).

Large-tailed Nightjar (macrurus)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus macrurus macrurus
macruros / macrurus
Gr. μακρος makros  long; -ουρος -ouros  -tailed  < ουρα oura  tail.
● ex “Long-tailed Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Kittacincla malabarica).

Large-tailed Nightjar (schlegelii)
SCI Name: Caprimulgus macrurus schlegelii
Hermann Schlegel (1804-1884) German ornithologist (syn. Antigone canadensis, syn. Caprimulgus macrurus, Emarginata, syn. Eos rubra, syn. Geoffroyus geoffroyi rhodops, syn. Halcyon coromanda, Pachycephala, Peliperdix, syn. Tanysiptera galatea riedelii, subsp. Turdus poliocephalus) (see schlegeli).