Protonym: Picus borealis Hist.Nat.Ois.Am.Sept. 2 p.66 pl.122
Category: Piciformes / Picidae / Dryobates
Taxonomy Code: recwoo
Type Locality: 'Northern United States'' rr Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, by designation of Wetmore, injra, p. 498.
Publish Year: 1809
IUCN Status: Near Threatened
(Picidae; Ϯ Downy Woodpecker D. pubescens) Gr. δρυς drus, δρυος druos tree; βατης batēs walker < βατεω bateō to tread < βαινω bainō to walk; "XXIX. Fam. Picidae ... Dryobates: Picus pubescens Gm. u. s. w." (Boie 1826); “In the 1st edition of the List and in the Cat. Birds B. M. the generic name Dendrocopus is used. This was first introduced by Koch [Dendrocopos 1816] ... for the Spotted Woodpeckers. The same name, however, had previously been used by Vieillot  ... The type of Vieillot’s Dendrocopus is either “le Picucule” or “le Talapiot” of Daubenton, now known respectively as Dendrocolaptes certhia (Bodd.) and Dendroplex picus (Gmel.), both of which belong to the family Dendrocolaptidae. Dendrocopus cannot therefore be used for the Spotted Woodpeckers.” (BOU 1915); "Dryobates Boie, Isis von Oken, 1826, Bd. 2, col. 977. Type, by monotypy, Picus pubescens Linné." (Peters, 1948, VI, p. 180).
Gr. δρυς drus, δρυος druos tree; βατης batēs walker < βατεω bateō to tread < βαινω bainō to walk.
L. borealis northern < boreas north wind, north < Gr. βορεας boreas north wind, north. This epithet refers not only to northern latitudes but also to a distribution or range north of previously known forms.
● King George Bay, Alaska; ex “Boreal Sandpiper” of Latham 1785 (syn. Aphriza virgata).
● Carolina; ex “American Buzzard” of Latham 1781, and “Red-tailed Falcon” of Pennant 1785 (subsp. Buteo jamaicensis).
● Erroneous TL. Northern United States (= South Carolina) (Leuconotopicus).
● Erroneous TL. "Kamtschatka" (= Princes I., Java); ex “Rusty-headed Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Orthotomus sepium).
● Erroneous TL. Iceland (= Norway) (subsp. Poecile montanus).
UPPERCASE: current genus
Uppercase first letter: generic synonym
● and ● See: generic homonyms
lowercase: species and subspecies
●: early names, variants, mispellings
†: type species
Gr.: ancient Greek
<: derived from
syn: synonym of
/: separates historical and modern geographic names
ex: based on
TL: type locality
OD: original diagnosis (genus) or original description (species)