Solitary Snipe / Gallinago solitaria

Solitary Snipe / Gallinago solitaria

Solitary Snipe

SCI Name:  Gallinago solitaria
Protonym:  Gallinago solitaria Glean.Sci. 3 p.238
Category:  Charadriiformes / Scolopacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  solsni1
Type Locality:  Nepal.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1831
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

GALLINAGO
(Scolopacidae; Ϯ Common Snipe G. gallinago) Specific name Scolopax Gallinago Linnaeus, 1758; "**2. LA BECCASSINE.  ...  GALLINAGO.  ...  Elle se tient dans des endroits marécageux, & le long des petits ruisseaux." (Brisson 1760): based on "Gallinago" of Brisson 1760, Scolopax Gallinago Linnaeus, 1758, and "Scolopax" or "Capella" of other authors; "LXXVI Gattung.  Gräser. Gallinago.  (Tab. IX. A. Fig. 73.)  Schnabel: Sehr lang, gerade, walzenförmig; die untere Kinnlade vom Grunde aus etwas breiter als die obere; die Spitzenkolbe stärker  als bei der Schnepfe, von oben breiter, und in der Mitte mit einer Längerinne versehen, im Leben glatt, im Tode runzlich; die Seitenlängefurchen bis fast zur Schnabelspitze gehend; die Mundkanten hervorstehend.  Nasenlöcher: Zweimal so lang als ihre Entfernung vom Schnabelgrunde, länglich oval, und etwas schief liegend.  Zunge: Sehr lang, bis fast zur Schnabelspitze gehend, pfriemenförmig, dünn, oben etwas rinnenförmig; an dem Hinterrand zu jeder Seite der Mitte drei Zähne, wovon der äußerste den stärkern Ekzahn ausmaeht; auf diesen Ekzahn noch ein viertes und unter demselben noch zwei kleinere Zähnchen: im Ganzen am Hinterterrand 12 Zähne; die Seitenränder hinten glatt, und nicht gezähnt.   ...   Drei Arten.  194. Großer Gräser.  Gallinago major ...  Scolopax major. Gmel. Linn. S. I. p. 661. n. 36.  Scolopax paludosa. Daselbst p. 661. n. 35.  Scolopax media. Bechst. orn. T. p. 280. = Meyers u. Wolfs T. p. 362.  ...  Name: An dem Bodensee großer Gräßer.   ...   195. Halb-Gräser. Gallinago media.  ...  Scolopax Gallinago. Gmel. Linn. S. I. p. 662. N. 7. = Schrank f. b. B. I. p. 216. n. 189. = Bechst. orn. T. p. 280. = Meyers und Wolfs T. p. 363.  ...  Name: Beccassine, an dem Bodensee Gräser.   ...   196. Kleiner Gräser. Gallinago minor.  ...  Scolopacx [sic] Gallinula. Gmel. Linn. S. I. p. 662. n. 8. = Schrank f. b. B. I. p. 216. n. 190. = Bechst. orn. T. p. 281. = Meyers und Wolfs T. p. 364.  ...  Name: Kleine Beccassine, Bokerle, kleiner Gräser." (Koch 1816); "Gallinago KOCH, Syst. Baier. Zool., 1816, 312. Type, by tautonymy, Gallinago media KOCH = Scolopax gallinago LINNÆUS." (AOU Check-List, ed. 3, 1910, p. 110); "GALLINAGO Brisson, 1760  F— "Gallinago" Brisson; type by tautonymy = Scolopax gallinago Linnaeus, 1758 ...  8 For suppression of Capella see Direction 39 (I.C.Z.N., 1956). That name was used by Peters (1934)." (Dickinson and Remsen (eds.), H. & M. Complete Checklist, 4th ed., 2013, 1 (Non-passerines), p. 214).   
Synon. Capella, Chubbia, Ditelmatias, Enalias, Eugallinago, Homoptilura, Homoscolopax, Macrodura, Nemoricola, Neospilura, Odura, Odurella, Pelorychus, Spilura, Subspilura, Telmatias, Xylocota.

gallinago
Late Med. L. gallinago woodcock, snipe (Turner 1544) < L. gallina hen  < gallus  cockerel; -ago resembling; probably from the speckled brown plumage, halting progress, and sudden cries of the Common Snipe; "77. SCOLOPAX.  ...  Gallinago.  11. S. rostro recto apice tuberculato, pedibus fuscis, lineis frontis fuscis quaternis.  Numenius capite lineis 4, fuscis longitudinalibus, rostri apice tuberculoso, femoribus seminudis. Faun. svec. 143.  Gallinago minor. Gesn. av. 503. Aldr. orn. l. 20. c. 53. Will. orn. 214. Raj. av. 105. n. 2. Alb. av. I. p. 68. t. 71.  Habitat in Europa.  Hæc Capella cœlestis cujus mas tam alte celerrimeque volitat, ut audiri, non vero oculis attingi possit." (Linnaeus 1758) (Gallinago).

solitaria / solitaris / solitarius
L. solitarius  solitary  < solus, solius  alone.
● According to Fraser in P. Sclater 1859a, the Solitary Shrike Tyrant was called “el Solitario” by the Spanish settlers of Ecuador (Agriornis).
● ex “Coucou Solitaire” of Levaillant 1806, pl. 206 (Cuculus).
● ex “Green-headed Bunting” of Latham 1785 (syn. Emberiza hortulana).
● “Solitary Sparrow  ...  It is wont to sit alone on the tops of ancient Edifices and Roofs of Churches, singing most sweetly, especially in the Morning, whence it took its name” (Ray 1678); "95. TURDUS.  ...  solitarius.  14. T. cæruleus, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, abdomine lineolis cinereis undulato.  Passer solitarius. Willugb. orn. 191. Raj. av. 66. Edw. av. 18. t. 18. Olin. av. 14. Act. Ups. 1750. p. 21.  Habitat in Oriente.  Mas cæruleus; Femina cinerea, subtus lineolis albis & cinereis undulata." (Linnaeus 1758) (Monticola).
● (Statius Müller 1776) ex “Merle solitaire de Manille” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 564, fig. 2 (syn. Monticola solitarius philippensis).
● (J. Gmelin 1789) ex “Passera solitaria” of Olina 1622, “Solitary Sparrow” of Willughby 1676, “Passer solitarius” of Ray 1713, “Merula solitaria” of Brisson 1760, “Merle solitaire” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Monticola solitarius).
● ex “Suirirí chorreado todo” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 196 (Myiodynastes).
● ex “Solitaire” of Leguat 1708, and de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Dodo” of Latham 1785: “not met with in flocks, scarcely more than two being found together” (‡Pezophaps).
● ex “Solitary Parrot” of Latham 1787 (Phigys).
● ex “Japú negro” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 58 (Procacicus).
● ex “Oiseau Solitaire” of Carré 1669, and “Solitaire” of Dubois 1674 (this bird was formerly thought to be a species of dodo Raphus) (‡Threskiornis).
● ex “Ynambú Mocoicogoé” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 332 (Tinamus).
● "This new species inhabits the watery solitudes of our highest mountains during the summer, from Kentucky to New York" (A. Wilson 1813) (Tringa).

SUBSPECIES

Solitary Snipe (solitaria)
SCI Name: Gallinago solitaria solitaria
solitaria / solitaris / solitarius
L. solitarius  solitary  < solus, solius  alone.
● According to Fraser in P. Sclater 1859a, the Solitary Shrike Tyrant was called “el Solitario” by the Spanish settlers of Ecuador (Agriornis).
● ex “Coucou Solitaire” of Levaillant 1806, pl. 206 (Cuculus).
● ex “Green-headed Bunting” of Latham 1785 (syn. Emberiza hortulana).
● “Solitary Sparrow  ...  It is wont to sit alone on the tops of ancient Edifices and Roofs of Churches, singing most sweetly, especially in the Morning, whence it took its name” (Ray 1678); "95. TURDUS.  ...  solitarius.  14. T. cæruleus, remigibus rectricibusque nigris, abdomine lineolis cinereis undulato.  Passer solitarius. Willugb. orn. 191. Raj. av. 66. Edw. av. 18. t. 18. Olin. av. 14. Act. Ups. 1750. p. 21.  Habitat in Oriente.  Mas cæruleus; Femina cinerea, subtus lineolis albis & cinereis undulata." (Linnaeus 1758) (Monticola).
● (Statius Müller 1776) ex “Merle solitaire de Manille” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 564, fig. 2 (syn. Monticola solitarius philippensis).
● (J. Gmelin 1789) ex “Passera solitaria” of Olina 1622, “Solitary Sparrow” of Willughby 1676, “Passer solitarius” of Ray 1713, “Merula solitaria” of Brisson 1760, “Merle solitaire” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Thrush” of Latham 1783 (syn. Monticola solitarius).
● ex “Suirirí chorreado todo” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 196 (Myiodynastes).
● ex “Solitaire” of Leguat 1708, and de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Solitary Dodo” of Latham 1785: “not met with in flocks, scarcely more than two being found together” (‡Pezophaps).
● ex “Solitary Parrot” of Latham 1787 (Phigys).
● ex “Japú negro” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 58 (Procacicus).
● ex “Oiseau Solitaire” of Carré 1669, and “Solitaire” of Dubois 1674 (this bird was formerly thought to be a species of dodo Raphus) (‡Threskiornis).
● ex “Ynambú Mocoicogoé” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 332 (Tinamus).
● "This new species inhabits the watery solitudes of our highest mountains during the summer, from Kentucky to New York" (A. Wilson 1813) (Tringa).

Solitary Snipe (japonica)
SCI Name: Gallinago solitaria japonica
japanensis / japanicus / japensis / japonensis / japonica / japonicum / japonicus
Japan (Mod. English names (early examples including Giapan) were derived from a Portuguese corruption of Malay Jepang and Chinese Zeppen, themselves local renderings of Nippon). The French equivalent is Japon.
● ex “Japonese Eagle” of Latham 1781 (subsp. Falco peregrinus).
● ex “Grue du Japon” of Brisson 1760 (Grus).
● Erroneous TL Japan (= New Guinea); ex “Psittacus erythrochlorus macrourus” of Aldrovandus 12599, and “Psittaca japonica” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Charmosyna papou).