Spotted Shag / Phalacrocorax punctatus

Spotted Shag / Phalacrocorax punctatus

Spotted Shag

SCI Name:  Phalacrocorax punctatus
Protonym:  Pelicanus punctatus Mus.Carls. fasc.1 no.x,pl.
Category:  Suliformes / Phalacrocoracidae /
Taxonomy Code:  sposha1
Type Locality:  Queen Charlotte Sound, South Island, New Zealand.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1786
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

PHALACROCORAX
(Phalacrocoracidae; Ϯ Great Cormorant P. carbo) L. phalacrocorax, phalacrocoracis  cormorant  < Gr. φαλακροκοραξ phalakrokorax,  φαλακροκορακος phalakrokorakos  cormorant  < φαλακρος phalakros  bald-headed  < φαλος phalos  white; ακρος akros  topmost; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak; "LE CORMORAN  ...  PHALACROCORAX  ...  Juxta maris littora versatur, paludesque frequentat. Modo in rupibus, modo in arboribus excelsis nidificat" (Brisson 1760): based on "Phalacrocorax" and "Corvus aquaticus" of many authors, "Carbo aquaticus" of Gessner 1555, and Linnaeus 1748, "Morfex" of Gessner 1555, Aldrovandus 1599-1603, Jonston 1650-1653, and Charleton 1668, "Nonnullis" of Gessner 1555, Schwenckfeld 1603, and Klein 1750, "Pelecanus subtus albicans" of Linnaeus 1746, "Plancus Corvus" of Klein 1750, and Pelecanus Carbo Linnaeus, 1758; "Phalacrocorax Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 60. Type, by tautonymy, Phalacrocorax = Pelecanus carbo Linné." (Peters 1931, 1, 85). The Great Cormorant was formerly trained in England to catch fish, but that necessary pastime can now only be seen in the Far East.   
Var. PhalaciocoraxPhalocrocorax, Phalarocorax, Phelacrocorax.   
Synon. Anacarbo, Botaurites, Carbo, Carbonarius, Compsohalieus, Cormoranus, Dilophalieus, Ecmeles, Enygrotheres, Euleucocarbo, Graculus, Graucalus, Gripeus, Gulosus, Halieus, Hydrocorax, Hypoleucus, Leucocarbo, Mesocarbo, Nannopterum, Nesocarbo, Notocarbo, Oligocorax, Pallasicarbo, Paracorax, Pliocarbo, Poikilocarbo, Pseudocarbo, Stictocarbo, Urile, Viguacarbo.
● (syn. Rynchops Ϯ Black Skimmer R. niger) "109. ZWEMMERGANS, in het Latyn Phalacrocorax.  Vogel van Madras met een scheermes-snabel.  PETIVER by RAY. Syn. Av. 194. f. 5." (Moehring 1758).

phalacrocorax
L. phalacrocorax, phalacrocoracis  cormorant  < Gr. φαλακροκοραξ phalakrokorax, φαλακροκορακος phalakrokorakos  cormorant  < φαλακρος phalakros  bald-headed  < φαλος phalos  white; ακρος akros  topmost; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak.
● ex Phalacrocorax Brisson, 1760 (syn. Phalacrocorax carbo).

punctatum / punctatus
Mod. L. punctatus  spotted  < L. punctum  spot  < pungere  to puncture (cf. Med. L. punctatus  pointed).
● ex “Spotted Shag” of Latham 1785 (Phalacrocorax).
● ex “Spotted Shrike” of Latham 1781, and “Tachet” of Levaillant 1805 (Thamnophilus).

SUBSPECIES

Spotted Shag (punctatus)
SCI Name: Phalacrocorax punctatus punctatus
punctatum / punctatus
Mod. L. punctatus  spotted  < L. punctum  spot  < pungere  to puncture (cf. Med. L. punctatus  pointed).
● ex “Spotted Shag” of Latham 1785 (Phalacrocorax).
● ex “Spotted Shrike” of Latham 1781, and “Tachet” of Levaillant 1805 (Thamnophilus).

Spotted Shag (oliveri)
SCI Name: Phalacrocorax punctatus oliveri
oliveri
Dr Walter Reginald Brook Oliver (1883-1957) Australian naturalist, emigrated to New Zealand 1896, expedition to Kermadecs 1907-1908, customs officer, Director of Dominion Mus., Wellington 1928-1947 (syn. Hydroprogne caspia, syn. Pachyptila turtur, subsp. Phalacrocorax punctatus (ex Stictocarbo steadi Oliver, 1930), syn. Pterodroma nigripennis, syn. Zapornia tabuensis).