Spotted Tody-Flycatcher / Todirostrum maculatum

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher / Todirostrum maculatum

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher

SCI Name:  Todirostrum maculatum
Protonym:  Todus maculatus Hist.Nat.Tangaras livr.10 pl.70,text
Category:  Passeriformes / Tyrannidae /
Taxonomy Code:  sptfly1
Type Locality:  'la Guaine'' [= Cayenne].
Author:  
Publish Year:  1806
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

TODIROSTRUM
(Tyrannidae; Ϯ Common Tody Flycatcher T. cinereum) Genus Todus Brisson 1760, tody; L. rostrum  beak; “The long spatulate bill, somewhat resembling that of the genus Todus, has been the occasion of the generic name of this group" (P. Sclater 1888); "CXLII.e Genre. GOBE-MOUCHE; Muscicapa, L. et Auct.   ...   1.er Sous-genre. TODIROSTRE; Todirostrum.   Bec alongé, déprimé, aplati, linguiforme; tarses minces, grêles; ailes très-courtes, brèves.    1.º Todus cinereus, Desm., pl. 2. De la Trinité, du Brésil.    2.º Todus maculatus, Desm., pl. 4. De Cayenne." (Lesson 1831); "Todirostrum Lesson, 1831, Traité Ornith., p. 384. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, List. Genera Birds, p. 31), "T. cinerum" Linnaeus = Todus cinereus Linnaeus." (Traylor in Peters 1979, VIII, 87).
Var. TodrirostrumTodirostris (L. -rostris  -billed).
Synon. Triccus.

maculatum / maculatus
L. maculatus spotted, blotched < maculare to make spotted < macula spot.
● ex “Colibri à gorge verte de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 671, fig. 1, “Colibri à cravate verte” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Green-throated Humming-bird” of Latham 1782 (syn. Anthracothorax viridigula).
● ex “Tachard” of Levaillant 1798, pl. 19 (syn. Buteo oreophilus, syn. Buteo trizonatus, syn. Pernis apivorus).
● ex “Spotted Curucui” of Brown 1776, and Latham 1782 (Chalcites).
● ex “Patch-necked Humming-bird” of Latham 1787 (syn. Chrysolampis mosquitus).
● ex “Petit pic d’Antigue” of Sonnerat 1776 (Dendrocopos).
● ex “Coucou tacheté de la Chine” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 764 (syn. Eudynamys scolopaceus).
● ex “Merle à gorge noire de St. Domingue” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 559 (?syn. Icterus cucullatus).
● ex “Hirondelle tachetée de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 546, fig. 1 (?Iridoprocne albiventer).
● ex “Botaurus naevius” of Brisson 1760, “Schwarzer Reiger” of Frisch et al. 1763, “Butor tacheté” or “Pouacre” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Spotted Heron” of Latham 1785 (syn. Ixobrychus minutus).
● ex “Fou tacheté de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 986 (= ☼), “Fou tacheté” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Spotted Booby of Latham 1785 (syn. Morus bassanus).
● ex “Gobe-mouche tacheté de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 453, fig. 2 (Myiodynastes).
● ex “Matuiti” of Willughby 1676, Ray 1713, and de Buffon 1770-1783, “Ispida Brasiliensis naevia” of Brisson 1760, and “Brasilian Spotted Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (Nystalus).
● ex “Râle tacheté de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 775 (Pardirallus).
● ex “Ñacurutú chorreado” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 44 (syn. Rhinoptynx clamator midas).
● ex “Spotted Red-shank” of Pennant 1761 (syn. Tringa erythropus).

SUBSPECIES

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (signatum)
SCI Name: Todirostrum maculatum signatum
signata / signatum / signatus
L. signatus  distinct, marked, well marked  < signare  to mark or inscribe  < signum  sign.
● ex “Petit Perroquet vert” of Levaillant 1801-1805 (syn. Amazona agilis).
● ex “Perruche à tête rouge” of Sonnerat 1776 (syn. Psittacula cyanocephala).

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (amacurense)
SCI Name: Todirostrum maculatum amacurense
amacurense / amacurensis
Delta Amacuro, north-eastern Venezuela.

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (maculatum)
SCI Name: Todirostrum maculatum maculatum
maculatum / maculatus
L. maculatus spotted, blotched < maculare to make spotted < macula spot.
● ex “Colibri à gorge verte de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 671, fig. 1, “Colibri à cravate verte” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Green-throated Humming-bird” of Latham 1782 (syn. Anthracothorax viridigula).
● ex “Tachard” of Levaillant 1798, pl. 19 (syn. Buteo oreophilus, syn. Buteo trizonatus, syn. Pernis apivorus).
● ex “Spotted Curucui” of Brown 1776, and Latham 1782 (Chalcites).
● ex “Patch-necked Humming-bird” of Latham 1787 (syn. Chrysolampis mosquitus).
● ex “Petit pic d’Antigue” of Sonnerat 1776 (Dendrocopos).
● ex “Coucou tacheté de la Chine” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 764 (syn. Eudynamys scolopaceus).
● ex “Merle à gorge noire de St. Domingue” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 559 (?syn. Icterus cucullatus).
● ex “Hirondelle tachetée de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 546, fig. 1 (?Iridoprocne albiventer).
● ex “Botaurus naevius” of Brisson 1760, “Schwarzer Reiger” of Frisch et al. 1763, “Butor tacheté” or “Pouacre” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Spotted Heron” of Latham 1785 (syn. Ixobrychus minutus).
● ex “Fou tacheté de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 986 (= ☼), “Fou tacheté” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Spotted Booby of Latham 1785 (syn. Morus bassanus).
● ex “Gobe-mouche tacheté de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 453, fig. 2 (Myiodynastes).
● ex “Matuiti” of Willughby 1676, Ray 1713, and de Buffon 1770-1783, “Ispida Brasiliensis naevia” of Brisson 1760, and “Brasilian Spotted Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (Nystalus).
● ex “Râle tacheté de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 775 (Pardirallus).
● ex “Ñacurutú chorreado” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 44 (syn. Rhinoptynx clamator midas).
● ex “Spotted Red-shank” of Pennant 1761 (syn. Tringa erythropus).

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (diversum)
SCI Name: Todirostrum maculatum diversum
diversum / diversus
L. diversus different, diverse < divertere to differ.
• "Ammodramus caudacatus diversus, subsp. nov.  SOUTHERN SHARP-TAILED SPARROW.  ...  In general plumage A. c. diversus has the richest coloring of any of the group, including  even spring specimens of A. nelsoni.  Typical examples of this form in winter resemble very closely some specimens of nelsoni in the coloring of the upper parts — much more than they resemble typical examples of A. caudacutus —  but may be easily distinguished from the former at any season by their larger size, longer bill and very conspicuous dark stripes on the breast and flanks." (L. B. Bishop 1901) (subsp. Ammodramus caudacutus).
• "CELEUS LORICATUS DIVERSUS  Ridgway.   TALAMANCA WOODPECKER.  Similar to C. l. loricatus (of eastern Panama and northern Colombia), but rump and under parts of body decidedly darker (cinnamon), nearly, sometimes quite, concolor with foreneck and (in female) throat, blackish bars averaging larger and more numerous (especially on upper parts), and averaging decidedly larger." (Ridgway 1914) (subsp. Celeus loricatus).
• "Chlorospingus pileatus diversus, new subspecies  ...  The much greater contrast of the light abdomen with the more richly, deeply colored flanks easily distinguishes this new form from typical pileatus." (Griscom 1924) (subsp. Chlorospingus pileatus).
• "I find, on the contrary, that the birds of the two localities are as separable from each other as are the other recognized (and valid) races of the species.  The Huitzilac, Morelos, birds, being topotypical griseipectus, retain that name, while for the San Sebastián, Jalisco, specimens I propose the name—  Dendrortyx macroura diversus, n. subsp." (Friedmann 1943) (subsp. Dendrortyx macroura).
• "6.  Dicaeum geelvinkianum diversum subsp. nov.   Nearest to D. g. rubrocoronatum, but differs by the somewhat lighter, more scarlet crown and upper tail-coverts, and the more steel-blue, not purple, upper surface, which is also tinged with olive." (Rothschild & Hartert 1903) (subsp. Dicaeum geelvinkianum).
• "A number of years ago the United States National Museum received four specimens of a Piprisoma that had been collected in Palawan by the Menage Expedition.  These were put aside by the author for further study and then neglected.  They had been originally identified as Piprisoma modestum by the collector and are indeed close to that species.  I can not find that this species has ever been credited to the Philippines.  The four bird skins evidently represent an un-named species, which may be known as:   Piprisoma diversum, sp. nov.  ...  Similar to Piprisoma modestum modestum, but brighter above  ...  bill broader at the base and the lower mandible more swollen; white on the inner web on the outer tail feathers at the tip much reduced." (Riley 1936) (syn. Dicaeum aeruginosum affine).
• "Grallaria macularia diversa, new subspecies  ...  I was at first confident that this form would prove to be entitled to the name diluta, described by Hellmayr from Thomar, Rio Negro, Brazil, and later synonymized with paraensis, but a reëxamination of the type, kindly made for me by Dr. Hellmayr, indicates the distinction of the present form." (J. Zimmer 1934) (subsp. Hylopezus macularius).
• "Leptopogon amaurocephalus diversus subsp. nov.   Similar to Leptopogon amaurocephalus amaurocephalus Cabanis, but smaller, the back slightly darker green, the cap very much darker brown, the under surface paler yellow posteriorly, and the rectrices edged internally with buffy." (Todd 1913) (subsp. Leptopogon amaurocephalus).
• "Todirostrum maculatum diversum, new subspecies   ...   As noted above, specimens from part of the range of diversum show variational tendencies in one direction or another.  Birds from Teffé often approach signatum but average closer to diversum; birds from the Xingú approach the present form but average closer to maculatum.  ...  Although somewhat variable, therefore, diversum is fairly consistent in the characters that distinguish it from the other forms." (J. Zimmer 1940) (subsp. Todirostrum maculatum).
• "Veniliornis passerinus diversus, new subspecies  ...  Similar to V. p. insignis and similarly separable from passerinus, olivinus, and agilis but to different degrees in respect to certain details." (J. Zimmer 1942) (subsp. Veniliornis passerinus).
• "In this southeastern corner of Brazil, the population differs from both agilis and chivi sufficiently to deserve separate recognition, and since there is no available name for such a subspecies, it may be known as follows.  Vireo olivaceus diversus, new subspecies" (J. Zimmer 1941) (subsp. Vireo olivaceus).

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (annectens)
SCI Name: Todirostrum maculatum annectens
annectans / annectens
L. annectens, annectentis  connecting  < annectere  to connect.
“Annectans nobis.  Annectant Bhuchanga nobis.  A singular species, returning, both by its form and habits, towards the forest,-haunting [sic] birds first described, through the 3rd or Tectirostris [= Dicrurus remifer], which it very closely resembles in the form of its bill” (Hodgson 1836) (see Bhuchanga) (Dicrurus).
● “This form serves to connect Sibia Hodg., as exemplified by S. capistrata, with Yuhina but cannot be placed satisfactorily with either.” (Blyth 1847) (Heterophasia).
● "Passerella iliaca annectens, subsp. nov.  YAKUTAT FOX SPARROW.  Similar to P. i. insularis but smaller (the bill especially) and coloration slightly darker; similar to P. i. townsendi, but the brown color less castaneous" (Ridgway 1900) (subsp. Passerella unalaschcensis).