Whiskered Tern / Chlidonias hybrida

Whiskered Tern / Chlidonias hybrida

Whiskered Tern

SCI Name:  Chlidonias hybrida
Protonym:  Sterna hybrida Zoogr.Rosso-Asiat. 2 p.338
Category:  Charadriiformes / Laridae /
Taxonomy Code:  whiter2
Type Locality:  Southern Volga and Sarpa Lake, southeastern Russia.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1811
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

CHLIDONIAS
(Laridae; Ϯ Black Tern C. niger surinamensis) Curtailment of Gr. χελιδονιος khelidonios  swallow-like  < χελιδων khelidōn, χελιδονος khelidonos  swallow (alluding to the supposed lack of a hind toe (see Turnix)) (cf. Gr. χλιδαω khlidaō  to be delicate); "The tern or Sea-Swallow may be called the black-headed Tern; I have given it the scientific name of Sterna melanops, which implies the same thing.  This Tern was nine inches long from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail, and the dimension of the extended wings was 21 inches.  It was of an ash color above, and white beneath with the head, neck and feet blackish.  The bill was of a lead color, one inch long, compressed and sharp.  The feet had three half-webbed toes, and none behind.  The tail was long and forked, white beneath.   This bird is totally different from all the known Terns, and might even perhaps be considered as a new genus, by its long, compressed bill, toes only half-webbed, and want of a hind toe, to which the name of CHLIDONIAS MELANOPS might be applied.  It was shot in June 1821, near Harrodsburg, and was preserved by Dr. Graham, in whose possession I saw it." (Rafinesque 1822  per Rhoads 1912); "Chlidonias Rafinesque, Kentucky Gazette, n. s., 1, no. 8, 21 Feb., 1822, p. 3, col. 5. Type, by monotypy, Sterna melanops Rafinesque = Sterna surinamensis Gmelin." (Peters, 1934, II, p. 327).
Var. Chlidornis (Gr. ορνις ornis, ορνιθος ornithos  bird).
Synon. Hydrocecropis, Hydrochelidon, Pelodes, Viralva.

hybrida / hybridum / hybridus
L. hybrida or hibrida  hybrid  ?< Gr. ὑβριζω hubrizō  to be licentious.
● “STERNA hybrida.  ...  Diceres e St. fidipede et Hirundine [= Sterna hirundo] natam” (Pallas 1811) (NB. Sterna fissipes Linnaeus, 1766 = Chlidonias niger; Sterna fissipes Pallas, 1811 = Chlidonias leucopterus) (Chlidonias).
● “Il Cage  ...  In vista di tale diversita ho dato a questa specie l’epiteto d’Ibrida, o sia mulatta, come proveniente da un bianco, e da una negra” (Molina 1782) (Chloephaga).
● ex “Tordo negro y vario” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 71 (syn. Chrysomus cyanopus).
● ex “Fasanhühner” of Frisch 1763, “Coquar” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Pied Pheasant” of Hayes 1775 (Phasianus x).

SUBSPECIES

Whiskered Tern (hybrida)
SCI Name: Chlidonias hybrida hybrida
hybrida / hybridum / hybridus
L. hybrida or hibrida  hybrid  ?< Gr. ὑβριζω hubrizō  to be licentious.
● “STERNA hybrida.  ...  Diceres e St. fidipede et Hirundine [= Sterna hirundo] natam” (Pallas 1811) (NB. Sterna fissipes Linnaeus, 1766 = Chlidonias niger; Sterna fissipes Pallas, 1811 = Chlidonias leucopterus) (Chlidonias).
● “Il Cage  ...  In vista di tale diversita ho dato a questa specie l’epiteto d’Ibrida, o sia mulatta, come proveniente da un bianco, e da una negra” (Molina 1782) (Chloephaga).
● ex “Tordo negro y vario” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 71 (syn. Chrysomus cyanopus).
● ex “Fasanhühner” of Frisch 1763, “Coquar” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Pied Pheasant” of Hayes 1775 (Phasianus x).

Whiskered Tern (delalandii)
SCI Name: Chlidonias hybrida delalandii
delalandei / delalandi / delalandii
Pierre Antoine Delalande (1787-1823) French naturalist, explorer, collector in Brazil 1816 and tropical Africa 1818-1822 (syn. Buteo buteo vulpinus, subsp. Chlidonias hybridaCorythopis, ‡Coua, syn. Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus, syn. Stephanoxis lalandi, Treron).

Whiskered Tern (javanicus)
SCI Name: Chlidonias hybrida javanicus
javanicus / javanus / javensis
Java, Dutch East Indies / Indonesia.
● ex “Sarcelle de Java” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 930 (syn. Anas falcata).
● ex “Calao Javan” of Levaillant 1801 (syn. Rhyticeros undulatus).