White-winged Becard / Pachyramphus polychopterus

White-winged Becard / Pachyramphus polychopterus

White-winged Becard

SCI Name:  Pachyramphus polychopterus
Protonym:  Platyrhynchos polychopterus Nouv.Dict.Hist.Nat. 27 p.10
Taxonomy:  Passeriformes / Tityridae /
Taxonomy Code:  whwbec1
Type Locality:  Nouvelle-Hollande; Bahia, Brazil, proposed by Hellmayr, 1929, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 13, pt. 6, p. 179.
Publish Year:  1818
IUCN Status:  


(Tityridae; Ϯ Green-backed Becard P. viridis) Gr. παχυς pakhus  stout, thick; ῥαμφος rhamphos  bill; "rostro vix brevi, crasso, alto, rotundato-convexo, ad frontem largo, apice dentato" (von Spix 1826) (see Becardia); "PACHYRAMPHUS, n.  Pachyrhynchus, Spix.  Psaris, Cuv.   P. Cuvieri, (Swains.) n., Zool. Ill., t. 32." (G. Gray 1840); "The generic name of Pachyrhynchus Spix, is changed by Mr. G. R. Gray, to Pachyramphus, as the former word is used in entomology" (Darwin 1841); "Pachyramphus G. R. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 31. Type, by original designation, Psaris Cuvierii Swainson = Tityra viridis Vieillot." (Snow in Peters, 1979, VIII, p. 229).
Synon. Bathmidurus, Berlepschia, Callopsaris, Chloropsaris, Climacocercus, Hadrostomus, Pachyrhamphus, Pachyrhynchus, Platypsaris, Zetetes.

Gr. πολυχροος polukhroos  variegated  < πολυς polus  much; χροα khroa, χροας khroas  appearance  < χρως khrōs, χρωτος khrōtos  complexion; -πτερος -pteros  -winged  < πτερον pteron  wing.


White-winged Becard (similis)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus similis
simile / similis
L. similis, simile  similar, resembling.  Indicating a similarity in appearance or affinity to another, usually congeneric, species.  Over thirty forms share this epithet; some are shown below.
● "193.—A. similis.—New species?—Large Titlark.   Descr.—The description of the last species [A. rufula] will apply exactly to this very similar bird, with this exception, that the centre markings of the feathers are still more indistinct in this one; and that the fawn colour of the plumage beneath, extends over all the abdomen, vent, and under tail coverts.  It differs, however, remarkably in size and in some points of structure." (Jerdon 1840) (Anthus).
● "PTILOTIS PROCERIOR, F. & H., is unknown in Taviuni; and its place is supplied by a species that I at first took for P. carunculata, Gmel.  But the more I look at it, the more I doubt its identity with that bird; without actual comparisons, however, with specimens from Tonga, which is, I believe, the real habitat of P. carunculata, I cannot quite decide the point.  Measurements go for little in this species, hardly two individuals agreeing together; but not a single specimen we procured has the bill as short as 8'", the maximum quoted by Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub.  Then, again, they describe the iris as "white," and so figure it; in ours they are all buff, a darker shade prevailing.  The wattle is very different from that of P. procerior, but hardly resembles that figured by Drs. Finsch and Hartlaub.  If found distinct on actual comparison, I would name it P. similis.  I would call it after the island, of the birds of which I now write; but I possess some specimens from Bua and Mathuata islands  which are identical." (Layard 1876) (syn. Foulehaio taviunensis).
● "32. LE PIC SEMBLABLE.  (Picus similis, Lesson.)  ...  Celui que nous décrivons ici, et que nous adressons à M. Malherbe, pour sa belle Monographie des pics, ressemble singulièrement au lineatus, à l'erythrocephalus et à l'anaïs, et cependant, en le comparant à ces trois espèces, il offre des dissemblances."  (Lesson 1847) (subsp. Hylatomus lineatus).
● "9.  Chloropeta similis, new species.  ...  Its nearest relative appears to be C. icterina, but from this it differs in the wing formula, in smaller size, and apparently in the color of the thighs and upper parts." (Richmond 1897) (Iduna).
● "MONASA SIMILIS, new species. Cerro Azul Nun Bird.  ...  In general coloration very similar to M. fidelis from the same locality but immediately distinguishable by absence of white on chin, this color being confined to a band about base of upper mandible extending to lores as in pallescens" (Nelson 1912) (syn. Monasa morphoeus fidelis).
● "SPECIES 14.  MUSCICAPA SIMILIS.  TAB. XXV.   Mediocris, supra olivaceo-fusca, subtus sulphurea, Muscicapae cayennensi simillima, diversa vero rostro brevi, capite non nigro sed fusco, verticeque non flavo sed aurantio." (von Spix 1825) (Myiozetetes).
● "PETROICA SIMILIS.  ...  Very like Petroica pusilla of Peale, from Navigators' Islands, but it is larger (being 4½" in length), with the throat varied with white, scarlet, and fuscous-black; the outer tail-feathers white, with a blackish spot near the apex, and the outer margin only of the second feather white.   New Hebrides (Aneiteum)." (G. Gray 1860) (subsp. Petroica pusilla).
● "5. S. similis, Nob.  ...   differt a Tanagra magna, Gmel., Saltatore olivaceo, Vieillot, t. 4, p. 108, cui affinis tergo caudaque non viridibus, vitta superciliari post oculum ad nucham protensa, in Tanagra magna, ante oculari tantummodo juguloque non ferrugineo." (de La Fresnaye & d'Orbigny 1837) (Saltator).  

White-winged Becard (cinereiventris)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus cinereiventris
L. cinereus  ash-coloured  < cinis, cineris  ashes; venter, ventris  belly.

White-winged Becard (dorsalis)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus dorsalis
dorsale / dorsalis
L. dorsalis (properly dorsualis)  dorsal, of the back  < dorsum  back.
● ex “Chorlito à dos noir” of de Buffon (Sonnini ed.) 1800-1802 (syn. Calidris melanotos).

White-winged Becard (tristis)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus tristis
L. tristis  sad, gloomy.
● ex “Merle des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Acridotheres).
● ex “Merle à cul jaune du Sénégal” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 317 (syn. Pycnonotus nigricans).
● "98. FRINGILLA.  ...  tristis.  14. F. flava, fronte nigra, alis fuscis.  Carduelis americana. Catesb. car. I. p. 43. t. 43.  Habitat in America septentrionali." (Linnaeus 1758) (Spinus).

White-winged Becard (tenebrosus)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus tenebrosus
tenebrosa / tenebrosus
L. tenebrosus  dark, gloomy  < tenebrae  darkness.
● ex “Petit Coucou noir de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 505 (Chelidoptera).

White-winged Becard (nigriventris)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus nigriventris
nigriventer / nigriventris
L. niger black; venter, ventris belly.

White-winged Becard (polychopterus)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus polychopterus
Gr. πολυχροος polukhroos  variegated  < πολυς polus  much; χροα khroa, χροας khroas  appearance  < χρως khrōs, χρωτος khrōtos  complexion; -πτερος -pteros  -winged  < πτερον pteron  wing.

White-winged Becard (spixii)
SCI Name: Pachyramphus polychopterus spixii
spixi / spixii
Dr Johann Baptist Ritter von Spix (1781-1826) German naturalist, collector in Brazil 1817-1820 (Cyanopsitta, syn. Nothura boraquira, syn. Ortalis araucuan, subsp. Pachyramphus polychopterus, syn. Pionopsitta pileata, syn. Ramphodon dohrnii, syn. Spizaetus tyrannus, Synallaxis, syn. Vanellus melanopterus, Xiphorhynchus).