Cape Cormorant / Phalacrocorax capensis

Cape Cormorant / Phalacrocorax capensis

Cape Cormorant

SCI Name:  Phalacrocorax capensis
Protonym:  Pelecanus capensis Mus.Carls. fasc.3 no.61,pl.
Category:  Suliformes / Phalacrocoracidae /
Taxonomy Code:  capcor1
Type Locality:  False Bay, Cape of Good Hope.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1788
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

PHALACROCORAX
(Phalacrocoracidae; Ϯ Great Cormorant P. carbo) L. phalacrocorax, phalacrocoracis  cormorant  < Gr. φαλακροκοραξ phalakrokorax,  φαλακροκορακος phalakrokorakos  cormorant  < φαλακρος phalakros  bald-headed  < φαλος phalos  white; ακρος akros  topmost; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak; "LE CORMORAN  ...  PHALACROCORAX  ...  Juxta maris littora versatur, paludesque frequentat. Modo in rupibus, modo in arboribus excelsis nidificat" (Brisson 1760): based on "Phalacrocorax" and "Corvus aquaticus" of many authors, "Carbo aquaticus" of Gessner 1555, and Linnaeus 1748, "Morfex" of Gessner 1555, Aldrovandus 1599-1603, Jonston 1650-1653, and Charleton 1668, "Nonnullis" of Gessner 1555, Schwenckfeld 1603, and Klein 1750, "Pelecanus subtus albicans" of Linnaeus 1746, "Plancus Corvus" of Klein 1750, and Pelecanus Carbo Linnaeus, 1758; "Phalacrocorax Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 60. Type, by tautonymy, Phalacrocorax = Pelecanus carbo Linné." (Peters 1931, 1, 85). The Great Cormorant was formerly trained in England to catch fish, but that necessary pastime can now only be seen in the Far East.   
Var. PhalaciocoraxPhalocrocorax, Phalarocorax, Phelacrocorax.   
Synon. Anacarbo, Botaurites, Carbo, Carbonarius, Compsohalieus, Cormoranus, Dilophalieus, Ecmeles, Enygrotheres, Euleucocarbo, Graculus, Graucalus, Gripeus, Gulosus, Halieus, Hydrocorax, Hypoleucus, Leucocarbo, Mesocarbo, Nannopterum, Nesocarbo, Notocarbo, Oligocorax, Pallasicarbo, Paracorax, Pliocarbo, Poikilocarbo, Pseudocarbo, Stictocarbo, Urile, Viguacarbo.
● (syn. Rynchops Ϯ Black Skimmer R. niger) "109. ZWEMMERGANS, in het Latyn Phalacrocorax.  Vogel van Madras met een scheermes-snabel.  PETIVER by RAY. Syn. Av. 194. f. 5." (Moehring 1758).

phalacrocorax
L. phalacrocorax, phalacrocoracis  cormorant  < Gr. φαλακροκοραξ phalakrokorax, φαλακροκορακος phalakrokorakos  cormorant  < φαλακρος phalakros  bald-headed  < φαλος phalos  white; ακρος akros  topmost; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak.
● ex Phalacrocorax Brisson, 1760 (syn. Phalacrocorax carbo).

capense / capensis
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa (originally named Cabo das Tormentas Cape of Storms, by the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, it was renamed Cabo de Boa Esperança by João II King of Portugal in 1490 to reflect the optimism engendered by his country's explorations).
● ex “Cape Wigeon” of Latham 1785 (Anas).
● ex “Petite Mésange du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of Sonnerat 1782, “Petit Deuil” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Cape-Titmouse” of Latham 1783 (syn. Anthoscopus minutus).
● "113. MUSCICAPA.  ...  capensis.  16. M. fuscus, subtus alba, pectore nigro, fascia alarum rufa, rectricibus apice albis. Briss. av. 2. p. 372. t. 36. f. 3.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei.  Latera abdominis rufa. Tectrices alarum majores apice rufæ. Rectrices nigræ, apice albæ: extima latere exteriore alba." (Linnaeus 1766) (Batis).
● ex “Grand Duc” of Levaillant 1799, pl. 40 (unident.;?syn. Bubo capensis).
● Erroneous TL. Cape of Good Hope (= Cayenne); "56. BUCCO.  ...  capensis.  1. B. rufus, fascia humerali fulva, pectorali nigra.  Bucco. Briss. av. 4. p. 92. t. 6. f. 2.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei.  Cauda rotundata rectricibus 10." (Linnaeus 1766) (Bucco).
● ex “Sirli du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (syn. Certhilauda curvirostris).
● ex “Corneille du Cap” of Levaillant 1800, pl. 52 (Corvus).
● ex “Coucou du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 390, and “Cape Cuckow” of Latham 1782 (syn. Cuculus solitarius).
● "65. CERTHIA.  ...  capensis.  4. C. grisea, rectricibus nigricantibus: extima exterius albo fimbriata. Briss. av. 3. p. 618. t. 31. f. 1.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei." (Linnaeus 1766) (unident.; ?syn. Cyanomitra olivacea).
● Seas off the Cape of Good Hope (“Said by sailors to be a sure presage of a near approach to that promontory” (Latham 1785)); "64. PROCELLARIA.  ...  capensis.  3. P. albo fuscoque varia. Amœn. acad. 4. p.  . . Osb. it. 76  Anas alia indica. Gesn. av. 803. t. 804. f. 2.  Peteril media maculata. Edw. av. 90. t. 90. f. 2.  Habitat ad Cap. b. Spei." (Linnaeus 1758) (Daption).
● ex “Pic à tête grise du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 786, fig. 2, and “Cape Woodpecker” of Latham 1782 (syn. Dendropicos griseocephalus).
● "110. EMBERIZA.  ...  capensis.  9. E. grisea, gula albida, fascia oculari maxillarumque nigricante.  Hortulanus capitis b. spei. Briss. av. 3. p. 230. t. 14. f. 4.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei." (Linnaeus 1766) (Emberiza).
● "109. LOXIA.  ...  capensis.  39. L. atra, uropygio tectricibusque alarum luteis.  Fringilla capitis b. spei. Briss. av. 3. p. 171. t. 16. f. 1.  Habitat ad Caput b. spei." (Linnaeus 1766) (Euplectes).
● ex “Montagnard” of Levaillant 1798, pl. 35 (syn. Falco rupicolus).
● Erroneous TL. Cape of Good Hope (= Cayenne); ex “Petite perruche au Cap de Bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-17781, pl. 455, fig. 1, “Perruche aux ailes bleues” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Blue-winged Parrakeet” of Latham 1781 (syn. Forpus passerinus).
● Erroneous TL. Madagascar, Réunion and Cape of Good Hope (= Réunion); ex “Huppe du cap de bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 697, “Huppe noire et blanche du cap de bonne espérance” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Madagascar Hoopoe” of Latham 1782 (‡syn. Fregilupus varius).
● Erroneous TL. Cape of Good Hope (= India); "106. STURNUS.  ...  capensis.  2. S. nigricans, capitis lateribus subtusque albus.  Sturnus capitis b. spei. Briss. av. 2. p. 446. t. 41. f. 3.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei. An varietas S. contræ?  Macula alarum & uropygium alba. Rostrum basi flavescens, apice rufescens. Pedes lutei." (Linnaeus 1766) (syn. Gracupica contra).
● Erroneous TL. Cape of Good Hope (= Cayenne); ex “Carouge du Cap de Bonne Espérance” (= ♀) of Brisson 1760, and “Carouge de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 343 (syn. Icterus spurius).
● "105. ALAUDA.  ...  capensis.  8. A. rectricibus tribus lateralibus apice albis, gula lutea nigro marginata, superciliis flavis.  Alauda capitis b. spei. Briss. av. 3. p. 364. t. 19. f. 3.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei." (Linnaeus 1766) (Macronyx).
● "114. MOTACILLA. ...  capensis.  24. M. fusca, subtus albida, fascia pectorali fusca, superciliis albis, rectricibus lateralibus oblique albis.  Motacilla capitis b. spei. Briss. av. 3. p. 476. t. 25. f. 3.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei." (Linnaeus 1766) (Motacilla).
● "104. COLUMBA.  ...  capensis.  39. C. macroura, cauda cuneata, remigibus primoribus latere interiore rufis.  Turtur capitis b. spei. Briss. av. 1. p. 120. t. 9. f. 2.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei.  Corpus griseo-fuscum. Alæ macula chalybis splendentis. Maris jugulum atrum. Rostrum & Pedes rubra." (Linnaeus 1766) (Oena).
● ex “Traquet Montagnard” of Levaillant 1806, pl. 184, fig. 2 (syn. Oenanthe monticola).
● ex “Loriot Coudougnan” of Levaillant 1808, pll. 261, 262 (syn. Oriolus larvatus).
● Erroneous TL. Cape of Good Hope (= Java); ex “Martin-pescheur du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of Brisson 1760 (Pelargopsis).
● ex “Jaboteur” of Levaillant 1801 (syn. Phyllastrephus terrestris).
● "52. ORIOLUS.  ...  capensis.  18. O. fusco-olivaceus, subtus luteus.  Xanthornus capitis b. spei. Briss. av. 2. p. 128.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei." (Linnaeus 1766) (Ploceus).
● Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia (syn. Podargus strigoides phalaenoides, syn. Sericornis magnirostris dubius).
● ex “Cape Partridge” of Latham 1783 (Pternistis).
● "107. TURDUS.  ...  capensis.  17. T. nigricans, abdomine subflavescente, crisso luteo.  Merula fusca cap. b. spei. Briss. av. 2. p. 259. t. 27. f. 3.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei." (Linnaeus 1766) (Pycnonotus).
● "86. SCOPOLAX [sic].  ...  capensis.  14. S. rostro recto lineaque verticis rufescentibus, fascia pectorali nigra, linea utrinque dorsali alba.  Gallinago capitis b. spei. Briss. app. 141. t. 6.  Habitat ad Cap. b. spei.  Dorsum cinereum, nigro undulatum. Lineola albido-rufescens a rostro ad occiput. Orbitæ albæ postice in fasciam productæ. Collum antice rufum. Pectus fascia nigra, a qua fascia alba utrinque per dorsum ducta ad uropygium. Abdomen album. Pedes nigri." (Linnaeus 1766) (syn. Rostratula benghalensis).
● ex “Gobe-mouche à collier du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 572, fig. 2 (syn. Saxicola torquata).
● Erroneous TL. Cape of Good Hope (= South Island, New Zealand) (‡Turnagra).
● Erroneous TL. Cape of Good Hope (= Cayenne); ex “Bruant du Cap de Bonne-Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 386, fig. 2 (Zonotrichia).
● ex “Orange-bellied Manakin” of Latham 1783 (unident.).