Cardinal Myzomela / Myzomela cardinalis

Cardinal Myzomela / Myzomela cardinalis

Cardinal Myzomela

SCI Name:  Myzomela cardinalis
Protonym:  Certhia Cardinalis Syst.Nat. 1 pt1 p.472
Category:  Passeriformes / Meliphagidae /
Taxonomy Code:  carmyz1
Type Locality:  Tanna Island, New Hebrides. Based on Cardinal Creeper Latham, 1782, Gen. Synop. Birds, 1 (2), p. 733 and pi. 33, fig. 2.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1788
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

MYZOMELA
(Meliphagidae; Ϯ Scarlet Myzomela M. sanguinolenta) Gr. μυζαω muzaō  to suck; μελι meli  honey; "This section forms an interesting subdivision of the present group [Meliphagidae], as marking the passage to the Cinnyridæ ...  this type of form may be generically characterized as follows, the Mel. cardinalis being the normal species.  Genus. MYZOMELA.  Rostrum breve, gracile; culmine arcuato, ad basin subcultrato; naribus longitudinalibus, linearibus, perangustis, membrana supra tectis, rostri tertiam partem longitudine æquantibus.  Lingua, alæ, pedesque iidem fere ut in Meliphagis veris.  Cauda subbrevis, æqualis" (Vigors & Horsfield 1827); "Myzomela Vigors and Horsfield, 1827, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, p. 318 [=316]. Type, by original designation, Meliphaga cardinalis Vigors and Horsfield = Certhia sanguinolenta Latham." (Salomonsen in Peters 1967, XII, 350).
Var. Mysomela.
Synon. Cosmeteira, Melomyza.    

CARDINALIS
(Cardinalidae; Ϯ Northern Cardinal C. cardinalis) Specific name Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus, 1758. "Mercurialis affirms, that by the Portugues it is commonly called, The Cardinal bird, because it is of a scarlet (purpurei) colour, and seems to wear on its Head a red hat" (Ray 1678); "20. CARDINALIS VIRGINIANUS, Nob.  C. ruber; gula et capistro nigris; cauda valde rotundata; rostro conico, subdentato.   Hab. Throughout N. America.   Finding in the collection of the Zoological Society two beautiful undescribed species of this my new form, I take this opportunity of making them known, especially as both come from Mexico. They all preserve the short rounded wings and lengthened tail, and even the crested head and red colours. As to the different shape of the bills, it is only an additional proof of the little importance to be attached to the form of that member in the conirostral birds.    CARDINALIS PHŒNICEUS, Gould.  ...  A small but most splendid species, received by Mr. Gould from the country south of the Bay of Honduras.    CARDINALIS SINUATUS, Nob.  ...  Hab. Western parts of Mexico." (Bonaparte 1838); "Genus 159. CARDINALIS, Nob.   233. CARDINALIS VIRGINIANUS, Nob. (Loxia cardinalis, L.)  Aud. pl. 159.  Southern parts." (Bonaparte 1838); "Cardinalis Bonaparte, 1838,2 Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 5 (1837), p. 111. Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 43), Cardinalis virginianus Bonaparte = Loxia cardinalis Linnaeus.  ...  2 Cardinalis Bonaparte is No. 1728 on the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology (Opinion 784, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 23, pp. 201-209, 1966)." (Paynter in Peters, 1970, XIII, p. 220).
Synon. Pyrrhuloxia, Richmondena.
● (Thraupidaesyn. Piranga Ϯ Scarlet Tanager P. olivacea) Med. L. cardinalis  cardinal, bishop  < L. cardo, cardinis  hinge, pivot.; "b. TANGARZYK.  CARDINALIS.  Tangara - Cardinal. Fran.  ...  n. p. Tanagra rubra. GL." (Jarocki 1821); "Cardinalis Jarocki, 1821, Zoologiia, II, p. 133.  Type, by monotypy, Tanagra rubra Gm., i.e. Linnaeus, 1766 (not Fringilla rubra Linnaeus, 1758) = Tanagra olivacea Gmelin, 1789." (JAJ 2021).

cardinalis
Med. L. cardinalis  cardinal, senior bishop of the Roman Catholic church who wears a scarlet cap and robes  < L. cardo, cardinis  hinge, pivot.
● "96. LOXIA.  ...  Cardinalis.  5. L. rubra, facie nigra. Chin. Lagerstr. 13.  Cardinalis. Will. orn. 245. t. 44. f. 8.  Coccothraustes capensis ruber, rostro hiante. Pet. gaz. 16. t. 16. f. 7.  Coccothraustes rubra. Catesb. car. I. p. 38. t. 38. Frisch. ornith. I. t. 4. f. 1.  Coccothraustes indica cristata. Alb. orn. I. p. 55. t. 57. 3. t. 61. Aldr. orn. l. 16. c. 21. Raj. av. 85.  Psittacus cristatus ruber. Seb. mus. I. p. 96. t. 60. f. 4.  Habitat in America septentrionali." (Linnaeus 1758) (Cardinalis).
● ex “Lori Cardinal” of Hombron & Jacquinot 1845 (Chalcopsitta).
● ex “Sucrier Cardinalin” of Levaillant 1810, pl. 291 (Cinnyris artefact).
● ex “Lori d’Amboine” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 518, “Lori cramoisi” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Crimson Lory” of Latham 1781 (syn. Eclectus roratus).
● ex “Cardinal Creeper” of Latham 1782 (It is doubtful whether this is the "Kuyameta" of Vieillot 1802 ("Héoro-taire kuyameta ...Le nom de cet oiseau est celui qu'il porte à l'île de Tanna" (Vieillot 1817))) (Myzomela).
● ex “Grand pic varié de l’isle de Luçon” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Pic cardinal de l’Île de Luçon” of Sonnerat 1776, and “Cardinal Woodpecker” of Latham 1788 (unident. ?Chrysocolaptes sp?).

SUBSPECIES

Cardinal Myzomela (Loyalty)
SCI Name: Myzomela cardinalis lifuensis
lifuensis
Lifu I., Loyalty Is., New Caledonia.

Cardinal Myzomela (Cardinal)
SCI Name: Myzomela cardinalis [cardinalis Group]
MYZOMELA
(Meliphagidae; Ϯ Scarlet Myzomela M. sanguinolenta) Gr. μυζαω muzaō  to suck; μελι meli  honey; "This section forms an interesting subdivision of the present group [Meliphagidae], as marking the passage to the Cinnyridæ ...  this type of form may be generically characterized as follows, the Mel. cardinalis being the normal species.  Genus. MYZOMELA.  Rostrum breve, gracile; culmine arcuato, ad basin subcultrato; naribus longitudinalibus, linearibus, perangustis, membrana supra tectis, rostri tertiam partem longitudine æquantibus.  Lingua, alæ, pedesque iidem fere ut in Meliphagis veris.  Cauda subbrevis, æqualis" (Vigors & Horsfield 1827); "Myzomela Vigors and Horsfield, 1827, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, p. 318 [=316]. Type, by original designation, Meliphaga cardinalis Vigors and Horsfield = Certhia sanguinolenta Latham." (Salomonsen in Peters 1967, XII, 350).
Var. Mysomela.
Synon. Cosmeteira, Melomyza.