Common Goldeneye / Bucephala clangula

Common Goldeneye / Bucephala clangula

Common Goldeneye

SCI Name:  Bucephala clangula
Protonym:  Anas Clangula Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.125
Category:  Anseriformes / Anatidae /
Taxonomy Code:  comgol
Type Locality:  Europe; restricted to Sweden by Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica, ed. 2, p. 43.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

BUCEPHALA
(Anatidae; Bufflehead B. albeola) Specific name Anas bucephala Linnaeus, 1766 (= syn. Bucephala albeola); "Bucephala, BAIRD.  Type Anas albeola, L.  ...  BUCEPHALA, Baird.  ...  CH.— Bill from feathers of forehead about equal to the tarsus and shorter than the head; high at the base; lateral outlines tapering to the tip, where the nail forms only the central portion, though rather large. Nostrils situated near the middle of  the bill. Feathers of chin and forehead extending only moderately foreward a little further than those of cheeks. Tarsus rather more than half the foot. Tail moderately long, about half the wing, and somewhat pointed; of sixteen feathers.  ...  BUCEPHALA ALBEOLA, Baird.  Butter Ball; Dipper; Buffle Head.  ...  The name buffle head is a corruption of buffalo head, under which name it is mentioned by Bartram, in 1791." (Baird 1858); "Bucephala Baird, 1858, in Baird, Cassin, and Lawrence, Rep. Explor. Surv. Railroad Mississippi Pacific, 9, pp. xxiii, L, 788, 795.  Type, by original designation, Anas albeola Linnaeus." (Johnsgard in Peters, 1979, I, 2nd ed., p. 494) (see bucephala). 
Synon. Charitonetta, Clanganas, Clangula, Glaucion, Glaucionetta.

bucephala / bucephalus
Gr. βουκεφαλος boukephalos  bull-headed, large-headed  < βους bous  bull; -κεφαλος -kephalos  -headed  < κεφαλη kephalē  head.
● “Buffel’s Head Duck  ...  these feathers make the head appear bigger than it is, which seems to have given it the name of buffel’s head, that animal’s head appearing very big by its being covered with very thick long hair” (Catesby 1731); "61. ANAS.  ...  bucephala.  19. A. albida, dorso remigibusque nigris, capite supra infraque tumido sericeo nitente.  Anas minor, purpureo capite. Catesb. car. I. p. 95. t. 95 [♂].  Habitat in aquis dulcibus Americæ septentrionalis." (Linnaeus 1758) (syn. Bucephala albeola).
● "1.) LA PIE GRIÈCHE BUCÉPHALE.  LANIUS BUCEPHALUS.   ...   La tête est assez grande et le bec assez fort et vigoureux pour la taille de l'oiseau." (Temminck & Schlegel 1847) (Lanius).

CLANGULA
(Anatidae; Ϯ Long-tailed Duck C. hyemalis) Mod. L. clangula  little shouter, babbler  < dim. L. clangere  to resound (cf. Gr. κλαγγαζω klangazō  the babble of cranes; κλαγγη klangē  cry, scream); flocks of wintering Long-tailed Duck on the sea emit distinctive yodelling notes which can be heard for some distance; "Genus CLANGULA, Gessner, (Garrot).  Species CLANGULA GLACIALIS, (Northern Garrot).  ...  The vulgar name is Long-tailed Duck.  The most remarkable circumstance connected with this bird was the construction of its trachea.  ...  The use of these complicated organs, more remarkable in the duck species than in any other of the feathered tribe, has yet to be demonstrated by the physiologist" (Leach in Ross 1819); “Clangula, the name commonly used for the Golden-eye, dates from 1819 ...  The type species on which this name was founded, was undoubtedly the Long-tailed Duck and not the Golden-eye” (BOU 1915); "Clangula Leach, in Ross, Voy. Disc., 1819, App., p. xlviii. Type, by monotypy, Anas glacialis Linné = Anas hyemalis Linné." (Peters, 1931, I, p. 178). 
Var. Glangula
Synon. Crymonessa, Harelda, Melonetta, Pagonetta.
● (Anatidaesyn. Bucephala Ϯ Common Goldeneye B. clangula) Based on “Garrot” of Cuvier 1817; specific name Anas clangula Linnaeus, 1758.
● (Anatidae?syn. Histrionicus Ϯ Harlequin Duck H. histrionicus) "Base of the bill plain ...Bill short and narrow.  A. glacialis, histrionica and clangula" (Fleming 1822).

clangula
Mod. L. clangula  little shouter, babbler  < dim. L. clangere  to resound (cf. Gr. κλαγγαζω klangazō  the babble of cranes; κλαγγη klangē  cry, scream); "61. ANAS.  ...  Clangula.  20. A. nigro alboque varia, capite tumido nigro-viridi; sinu oris macula alba. Fn. svec. 100. It. œl. 49.  Clangula. Gesn. av. 119. Alb. av. I. p. 92. t. 96.  Anas platyrhynchos mas. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 42. Will. orn. 282. t. 73. Raj. av. 142.  Habitat in Europa; sæpius maritimaUrinatur egregie, quæsitura cochleas, trachea ventricosa, oculis æneis." (Linnaeus 1758) (Bucephala).

SUBSPECIES

Common Goldeneye (clangula)
SCI Name: Bucephala clangula clangula
CLANGULA
(Anatidae; Ϯ Long-tailed Duck C. hyemalis) Mod. L. clangula  little shouter, babbler  < dim. L. clangere  to resound (cf. Gr. κλαγγαζω klangazō  the babble of cranes; κλαγγη klangē  cry, scream); flocks of wintering Long-tailed Duck on the sea emit distinctive yodelling notes which can be heard for some distance; "Genus CLANGULA, Gessner, (Garrot).  Species CLANGULA GLACIALIS, (Northern Garrot).  ...  The vulgar name is Long-tailed Duck.  The most remarkable circumstance connected with this bird was the construction of its trachea.  ...  The use of these complicated organs, more remarkable in the duck species than in any other of the feathered tribe, has yet to be demonstrated by the physiologist" (Leach in Ross 1819); “Clangula, the name commonly used for the Golden-eye, dates from 1819 ...  The type species on which this name was founded, was undoubtedly the Long-tailed Duck and not the Golden-eye” (BOU 1915); "Clangula Leach, in Ross, Voy. Disc., 1819, App., p. xlviii. Type, by monotypy, Anas glacialis Linné = Anas hyemalis Linné." (Peters, 1931, I, p. 178). 
Var. Glangula
Synon. Crymonessa, Harelda, Melonetta, Pagonetta.
● (Anatidaesyn. Bucephala Ϯ Common Goldeneye B. clangula) Based on “Garrot” of Cuvier 1817; specific name Anas clangula Linnaeus, 1758.
● (Anatidae?syn. Histrionicus Ϯ Harlequin Duck H. histrionicus) "Base of the bill plain ...Bill short and narrow.  A. glacialis, histrionica and clangula" (Fleming 1822).

Common Goldeneye (americana)
SCI Name: Bucephala clangula americana
americ / americana / americanum / americanus
Mod. L. Americanus  American, of the Americas.  Received opinion states that America was named after Amerigo Vespucci (d. 1512), a Florentine merchant who promoted and sailed on several voyages to the New World 1500-1502.  The name was first used, of South America, by the cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in 1507.  More recently Lloyd & Mitchinson 2009, have repeated the argument that the Americas were named after Richard Ameryk (d. 1503), a Welsh merchant and High Sheriff of Bristol who invested in John Cabot’s voyages of discovery 1497-1498.  Coues 1882, refers to a Nicaraguan Indian name Americ for a local range of mountains, forgetting, however, that Nicaragua was not subdued by the conquistadores until 1522.
● North America; ex “Black-cheeked Eagle” of Latham 1781, and Pennant 1787 (?syn. Aquila chrysaetos).
● America (= eastern USA); ex Anas clangula of A. Wilson, 1814, and “Golden-Eye Duck” of Audubon 1836 (subsp. Bucephala clangula).
● Cayenne; ex “Martin-pescheur du Brésil” of Brisson 1760, “Martin-pecheur vert et blanc de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 591, and “White and green Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (Chloroceryle).
● "52. CUCULUS.  ...  americanus.  7. C. cauda cuneiformi, corpore supra cinereo: subtus albo, maxilla inferiore lutea.  Cuculus carolinianus. Catesb. car. 9. t. 9.  Habitat in Carolina." (Linnaeus 1758) (Coccyzus). This name is the eighth toponym in avian nomenclature.
● North America; ex “Cinereous Coot” of Latham 1785 (Fulica).
● "76. ARDEA.  ...  americana.  5. A. vertice temporibusque nudis papillosis, fronte nucha remigibusque primariis nigris, corpore albo.  Grus americana alba. Catesb. carol. I. p. 75. t. 75. Edw. av. 132. t. 132.  Habitat in America septentrionali.  Caput subtus ad maxillam inferiorem rubrum est." (Linnaeus 1758) (Grus).
● Erroneous TL. North America (?= Cayenne); ex “Black-chested Eagle” of Pennant 1766 (?syn. Harpia harpyja).
● Cayenne; ex “Aigle d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 417 (Ibycter).
● Louisiana; ex “Pie-grièche de la Louisiane” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 397 (syn. Lanius ludovicianus).
● Cayenne; ex “Merula indica pectore cinnabarino” or “Jacapu” of Marcgrave 1648, “Red-breasted Indian Blackbird” of Willughby 1676, “Troupiale de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 236, fig. 2, and de Buffon 1770-1783, “Mocking bird of Guiana” of Bancroft 1769, and “Red-breasted Oriole” of Latham 1782 (syn. Leistes militaris).
● Paraguay; ex “Tordo degollado tercero” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 70 (syn. Leistes superciliaris).
● Louisiana and New York; ex “Canard Jensen de la Louisiane” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “American Wigeon” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Mareca).
● North America; ex Mergus merganser A. Wilson, 1814 (subsp. Mergus merganser).
● Erroneous inferred TL. America (= Île de France (= Mauritius) = Philippines); ex “Guespier de l’Île de France” and “Petit Guespier des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Merops).
● "74. MYCTERIA.  ...  americana.  1. MYCTERIA.  Jabiru-guacu. Marcgr. bras. 201. Pis. bras. 87. Raj. av. 96. Will. orn. 202. t. 47. f. 2. 4.  Habitat in America calidioreMagnitudo Ciconiæ, alba, remigibus rectricibusque nigro-purpurascentibus.  Conf. Grew. mus. t. 5. f. 1." (Linnaeus 1758) (Mycteria).
● Louisiana; ex “Gallinula martinica” of Ord 1825 (syn. Porphyrula martinica).
● North America; ex “Avosetta” of Dampier 1697, and “American Avoset” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Recurvirostra).
● "86. STRUTHIO.  ...  americanus.  3. S. digito postico rotundato mutico.  Struthio Camelus americanus. Raj. av. 36.  Nhanduguacu brasiliensibus. Marcgr. bras. 190. Pis. bras. 84.  Habitat in America australi." (Linnaeus 1758) (Rhea).
● South Carolina; ex “Parus Fringillago. Finch-Creeper” of Catesby 1731 (Setophaga).
● America (TL erroneously given as Europe); ex “Yellow-backed Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Setophaga americana).
● "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  ...  americanus.  2. C. narium tubulis eminentibus.  Caprimulgus s. Noctua sylvatica jamaicensis. Sloan. jam. 2. p. 298. t. 255. f. 1. Raj. av. 180.  Hirundo major subfusca miscella, macula alba sphærica in utraque ala. Brown. jam. 467.  Habitat in America calidiore." (Linnaeus 1758). This is the last avian name in the epochal tenth edition of Linnaeus (‡Siphonorhis).
● New York; ex “Black-throated Bunting” of Pennant 1785 (Spiza).
● Some part of America (= Cayenne); ex “Black-breasted Grosbeak” of Latham 1783 (Sporophila).
● Virginia (= Pennsylvania); ex “Urogallus minor. Cocq de bois d’Amérique”of Catesby 1731, and “Attagen americana” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Tympanuchus cupido).
● Río de La Plata; ex “Hirondelle à croupion roux et queue carrée” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Rufous-rumped Swallow” of Latham 1782 (unident.).