Eurasian Wigeon / Mareca penelope

Eurasian Wigeon / Mareca penelope

Eurasian Wigeon

SCI Name:  Mareca penelope
Protonym:  Anas Penelope Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.126
Taxonomy:  Anseriformes / Anatidae /
Taxonomy Code:  eurwig
Type Locality:  Europe, restricted type locality, Sweden.
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  


(Anatidae; Ϯ Eurasian Wigeon M. penelope) Brazilian Portuguese name Marréco (or Mareca according to Marcgrave 1648) for the smaller kinds of duck (cf. Roman myth. Marica, a river- or water-nymph); "MARECA.  WIGEON.   Generic CharacterRostrum breve, basi inerme, subcylindricum, sublineare, apice ungue parvo instructo; mandibulæ lateribus  dentato-subserratis.  Nares parvæ, basales, ovales. Cauda brevis, acuta, rectricibus plerumque quatuor-decim ornatis.  ...  PENELOPE Antiquorum.  THE Wigeons have the beak rather broader and less elevated at the base than the Teals: it is also shorter than in the last-mentioned: in other respects the two genera are similar, but the individuals comprised in the present are usually much larger than the Teals, which are amongst the smallest of the Anatidæ. Wigeons have a peculiar whistling note, unlike that of any other Duck. The name Penelope having been used, by Linné, for another genus, I have adopted the appellation given to some of the species by the illustrious Ray.   COMMON WIGEON. (Mareca fistularis.)  ...  BLACK-TAILED WIGEON. (Mareca melanura.)  ...  SPOTTED-BILLED WIGEON. (Mareca pæcilorhyncha.)  ...  AMERICAN WIGEON. (Mareca Americana.)  ...  ILATHERA WIGEON. (Mareca Bahamensis.)  ...  MARECA WIGEON. (Mareca Brasiliensis.)  ...  CAPE WIGEON. (Mareca Capensis.)  ...  BIMACULATED WIGEON? (Mareca? glocitans.)" (Stephens 1824); "Mareca Stephens, in Shaw, Gen. Zoöl., 12, pt. 2, 1824, p. 130. Type, by subsequent designation, Mareca fistularis Stephens = Anas penelope Linné. (Eyton, Monogr. Anat., 1838, p. 33.)" (Peters 1931, I, 167).
Var. Marica, Marcia.
Synon. AnatraChaulelasmus, Chauliodus, Eunetta, Ktinorhynchus, Penelops.

Brazilian Portuguese name Marréco (or Mareca according to Marcgrave 1648) for the smaller kinds of duck.
● ex “Mareca alia species” of Marcgrave 1648 (syn. Amazonetta brasiliensis).

(Cracidae; Ϯ Marail Guan P. marail) Probably arbitrary, from Gr. myth. Penelope, a Greek princess, daughter of Icarius and wife of Ulysses, King of Ithaca, and who spun a braided web or tapestry to deceive many importunate admirers during the long absence of her husband at the siege of Troy. She had promised to choose amongst them upon the completion of the tapestry, but every night unravelled the previous days labour! (cf. "LES GUANS ou JACOUS  ...  Celui de Pénélope qui leur a été imposé par Merrem, désignait, chez les grecs, une espèce de canard qui, disait-on, avait sauvé des eaux la femme d'Ulysse dans son enfance." (Cuvier 1816)). Teixeira 1995, suggested that the generic term is correctly named after Penelope, in allusion to the reticulated pattern on the breast and foreneck of many guans. Another source, citing Penelope’s promiscuity, identifies her web as the limb and facial tattooes worn by woodland revellers during orgies dedicated to the mountain goddess (Gr. πηνη pēnē  thread, web; ωπε ōpe  aspect, look).  Perhaps an allusion to the partial crest of the Marail Guan compared to the full crest of the Common Piping Guan Pipile pipile described (Weishaubiger YakuPenelope leucolophos) in the pages and plate XII following (i.e. L. pene  almost, nearly; Gr. λοφος lophos  crest); "GRÜNGLÄNZENDEN YAKU  ...  Der Kopf ist klein, und mit einer niedrigen Holle (crista) längerer Federn bekleidet. Nach EDWARDS soll man sie auch ohne Holle antreffen, wodurch seiner Meynung nach die Männchen von dem Weibchen sich unterscheiden  ...  [plate XI] Grünglänzender Yaku. Penelope Jacupema" (Merrem 1786); "Penelope Merrem, Av. rar. Icon. et Descr., 1786, fasc. 2, p. 39. Type, by subsequent designation, Penelope marail Gmelin = Penelope iacupema Merrem = Phasianus marail P. L. S. Müller. (Lesson, Man. d'Orn., 2, 1828, p. 214.)" (Peters 1934, II, 12).
Var. PonolopePenelophe.
Synon. GanixGouan, Salpiza, Stegnolaema.
● (syn. Aythya Ϯ Common Pochard A. ferina) Gr. πηνελοψ pēnelops, πηνελοπος pēnelopos  type of duck; "19. LE MILLOUIN.  ...  PENELOPE" (Brisson 1760): based on "Penelops primus" of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, "Penelope" of Jonston 1650-1653 and Charleton 1668, and Anas ferina Linnaeus, 1758.

L. penelops, penelopis  type of duck  < Gr. πηνελοψ pēnelops, πηνελοπος pēnelopos  type of duck with purple stripes which was said to have rescued and fed Penelope after her parents had thrown her into the sea  < πηνη pēnē  braid, woof; ωψ ōps, ωπος ōpos  appearance; "Penelopes  ...  Judging from p. 148 of the original work the singular of this word is 'Penelops,' and it is probably by mistake that the Wigeon has been called Mareca penelope" (Evans 1903);“The name penelope was given to the Widgeon because of its supposed conjugal fidelity” (Phillips 1923); "61. ANAS.  ...  Penelope.  24. A. cauda acutiuscula subtus nigra, capite brunneo, fronte alba. Fn. svec. 105.  Penelope. Gesn. av. 108. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 38. Jonst. av. l. 49. Will. orn. 288. t. 72. Raj. av. 146.  Anas fistularis. Alb. av. 2. p. 88. t. 99.  Habitat in Europæ maritimis & paludibus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Mareca).