Great Sapphirewing / Pterophanes cyanopterus

Great Sapphirewing / Pterophanes cyanopterus

Great Sapphirewing

SCI Name:  Pterophanes cyanopterus
Protonym:  Trochilus cyanopterus Proc.Zool.Soc.London Pt8 no.86 p.17
Category:  Caprimulgiformes / Trochilidae /
Taxonomy Code:  gresap1
Type Locality:  Bogota, Colombia.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1840
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

PTEROPHANES
(Trochilidae; Ϯ Great Sapphirewing P. cyanopterus) Gr. πτερον pteron  wing; φανης phanēs  shining  < φαινω phainō  to show; "PTEROPHANES TEMMINCKI.  Temminck's Sapphire-wing.  ...  THIS is perhaps without exception one of the finest species of the family yet discovered; it has been named after the Father of living ornithologists, M. Temminck, and is in every way worthy of bearing so distinguished a name; the brilliant colouring of its wings renders it conspicuously different from all other known species.   ...   The adult male has all the upper surface and the lesser wing-coverts deep grass-green, becoming lighter on the rump  ...  wings shining deep blue, showing conspicuously both on the upper and under surface" (Gould 1849); "Pterophanes Gould, Monogr. Trochil., pt. 1, 1849, pl. [7] and text [ = 3, pl. 178 of volume]. Type, by monotypy, Ornismya temminckii Boissoneau (not of Lesson, 1829) = Trochilus cyanopterus Fraser." (Peters 1945, V, 97).
Synon. Lepidoria.

cyanopterus
Gr. κυανοπτερος kuanopteros  blue-winged, dark-winged  < κυανος kuanos  dark-blue; -πτερος -pteros  -winged  < πτερον pteron  wing.
● ex “Petite perruche du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 455, fig. 1, and “Perruche aux ailes bleues” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (syn. Forpus passerinus).

Cyanopterus
(Anatidae; syn. Spatula  Cinnamon Teal S. cyanoptera) Gr. κυανοπτερος kuanopteros  blue-winged  < κυανος kuanos  dark-blue; -πτερος -pteros  -winged  < πτερον pteron  wing; "GENUS X.  CYANOPTERUS.   EXT. CHAR.  Pedes digitis posterioribus mediocribus, et non lobatis.  Rostrum latius ad apicem quam ad basin.  Lamellæ paululum elongatæ.  Nares rotundatæ, magnæ.  Cauda vix elongata.  Alæ ptilis cæruleis.   ANAT. CHAR.  Trachea tubula infra glotidem expandente, tunc contracta, rursusque expandente, et contracta supra larynginem inferiorem.  Larynx inferior bulbo magno osseo lateribus et antice tendente.   ...   CYANOPTERUS nobis.  TYPE. Cyanopterus Rafflesii.   The above genus consists of that group commonly called the blue-winged teal; nor do we know one instance of a bird agreeing with the character which has not bright azure blue wings, except the Garganey, which has, however, dull slate-coloured ones." (Eyton 1838); "Gen. CYANOPTERUS, Eyton.    412. CYANOPTERUS CIRCIA, Eyton. (Anas querquedula, L.) Gould, pl. 364.     378. CYANOPTERUS DISCORS, Eyton. (Anas discors, L.) Aud. pl. 313." (Bonaparte 1838); "Cyanopterus Bonaparte, Geog. & Comp. List Eur. & Amer. Birds, p. 57, April 14th, 1838.  Type (by subsequent designation, Mathews, Birds Austr., Introd. vol. viii, p. xiv (pt. 5), Dec. 15th, 1920): Cyanopterus circia = A. querquedula Linné." (Mathews, 1927, Syst. Av. Austral., I, p. 218); "Cyanopterus (not of Haliday, 1835) Eyton, Monog. Anat., p. 38, 1838—type, by orig. desig., Anas rafflesii King = Anas cyanoptera Vieillot." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (2), p. 333).

SUBSPECIES

Great Sapphirewing (cyanopterus)
SCI Name: Pterophanes cyanopterus cyanopterus
cyanopterus
Gr. κυανοπτερος kuanopteros  blue-winged, dark-winged  < κυανος kuanos  dark-blue; -πτερος -pteros  -winged  < πτερον pteron  wing.
● ex “Petite perruche du Cap de Bonne Espérance” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 455, fig. 1, and “Perruche aux ailes bleues” of de Buffon 1770-1783 (syn. Forpus passerinus).

Great Sapphirewing (caeruleus)
SCI Name: Pterophanes cyanopterus caeruleus
caeruleus
L. caeruleus  azure-blue, cerulean (see also caerulea).
● ex “Blue Maccaw” of Albin 1731-1738, and Latham 1781, “Psittacus maximus caeruleus varius, cauda producta” of Brown 1756, and “Ara jamaicensis cyaneo-crocea” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Ara ararauna).
● ex “Oiseau-Mouche à goisier bleu” of Audebert & Vieillot 1801 (syn. Chlorestes notatus).
● "59. CERTHIA.  ...  cærulea.  3. C. cærulea, remigibus rectricibusque nigris.  Certhia cærulea. Edw. av. 21. t. 21.  Habitat Surinami.  Rostrum huic longius quam in congeneribus." (Linnaeus 1758) (Cyanerpes).
● "100. PARUS.  ...  cæruleus.  4. P. remigibus caerulescentibus: primoribus margine exteriore albis, fronte alba, vertice cæruleo. Fn. svec. 240.  Parus cæruleus. Bell. av. 96. a. Gesn. av. 641. Aldr. orn. l. 17. c. 17. Will. orn. 175. Frisch. av. 3. t. 14. f. 1.  Habitat in Europa." (Linnaeus 1758) (Cyanistes).
● ex “Urraca celeste” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 55 (Cyanocorax).
● ex “Todier de Juida” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 783, “Todier bleu à ventre orangé” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Blue Tody” of Latham 1781 (syn. Ispidina picta).
● ex “Merula coerulea” of Brisson (syn. Monticola solitarius).
● ex “Merle bleu de la Chine” of Sonnerat 1782 (Myophonus).
● ex “Small blue Jay” of Ray 1713, “Xanthornus caeruleus” of Brisson 1760, and “Blue Oriole” of Latham 1782 (?syn. Urocissa erythrorhyncha).
● ex “Xochitenacatl” of Nieremberg 1635, “Tucana caerulea” of Brisson 1760, and “Blue Toucan” of Latham 1781 (unident.).

Great Sapphirewing (peruvianus)
SCI Name: Pterophanes cyanopterus peruvianus
peruana / peruanum / peruanus / peruvia / peruviana / peruvianus / peruviensis
Peru. Said to be named after Biru, a local Inca encountered by the conquistadores (although the name is also accredited to a Panamanian cazique). Until the early 18th century the Viceroyalty of Peru included all Spanish possessions in South America.
● ex “Geai du Pérou” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 625, and de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Peruvian Jay” of Latham 1781 (syn. Cyanocorax yncas).
● ex “Coq de Roche du Pérou” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 745, and de Buffon 1770-1783 (Rupicola).
● Erroneous TL. Peru (= Brazil) (Tangara).
Erroneous TL. Peru (= Tahiti) (Vini).