Greater Rhea / Rhea americana

Greater Rhea / Rhea americana

Greater Rhea

SCI Name:  Rhea americana
Protonym:  Struthio americanus Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.155
Category:  Rheiformes / Rheidae /
Taxonomy Code:  grerhe1
Type Locality:  South America = Sergipe and Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, ex Marcgrave.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

RHEA
(Rheidae; Ϯ Greater Rhea R. americana) Gr. myth. Rhea, daughter of Gaia and Uranus, and mother to Zeus and the gods  < ῥεω rheō  to flow, because rivers flow from Earth (γαια gaia  Earth). The relevance of this epithet is unknown, although it may reflect the humorous juxtaposition of Rhea, the Great Mother, with the Ostrich, the Great Bird, in Aristophanes’ comedy Ornithes (The Birds). Valdés Chadwick 2016, recalls the myth of Cronon and Rhea, his sister and wife. Troubled by prophecy Cronon devoured his new-born children, with the exception of Zeus whom Rhea replaced with a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes. Cronon swallowed the offering, and, by association, it is noted that rheas, and other struthious birds, swallow stones and pebbles as an aid to digestion. "55. RHEA.  Struthiocamelus Americanus. RAI. Syn. av. 36." (Moehring 1752); "Alis, pro mole corporis, parvis & volatui inutilibus  { Rostro recto, horizontaliter subplano; apice subrotundo . . . . Rhea Genus 63.   ...   Le genre du Thouyou. (1).  ...  (1) Thouyou, nom forme de Thouyouyou, qui est celui que les Indiens de la Guiane donnent à l'espèce de ce genre.  ...  Genus Rheæ. (1).  ...  (1) Rhea, nomen a Moehringio huic generi inditum." (Brisson 1760); ex "Avis Eme" of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, "Struthio" and "Yandou" of de Laët 1633, "Nhandu-guacu" of Marcgrave 1648, and Piso 1658, "Struthio-Camelus" of Jonston 1650-1653, "Emeu nigricans" of Barrère 1745, "Rhea" of Moehring 1752, and Struthio Americanus Linnaeus, 1758; "Rhea Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 46; 5, 1760, p. 8. Type, by monotypy, Struthio americanus Linné." (Peters 1931, I, 4).
Synon. Gauria, Nandou, Pterocnemia, Touyou, Tuyus.
● (syn. Casuarius Ϯ Double-wattled Cassowary C. casuarius) Given to the Cassowary by confusion.

rhea
Gr. myth. Rhea, daughter of Uranus and mother to Zeus; ex “Nhandu-guacu brasiliensibus” of Marcgrave 1648, and “Rhea” of Moehring 1752, and Brisson 1760 (syn. Rhea americana).

americ / americana / americanum / americanus
Mod. L. Americanus  American, of the Americas.  Received opinion states that America was named after Amerigo Vespucci (d. 1512), a Florentine merchant who promoted and sailed on several voyages to the New World 1500-1502.  The name was first used, of South America, by the cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in 1507.  More recently Lloyd & Mitchinson 2009, have repeated the argument that the Americas were named after Richard Ameryk (d. 1503), a Welsh merchant and High Sheriff of Bristol who invested in John Cabot’s voyages of discovery 1497-1498.  Coues 1882, refers to a Nicaraguan Indian name Americ for a local range of mountains, forgetting, however, that Nicaragua was not subdued by the conquistadores until 1522.
● North America; ex “Black-cheeked Eagle” of Latham 1781, and Pennant 1787 (?syn. Aquila chrysaetos).
● America (= eastern USA); ex Anas clangula of A. Wilson, 1814, and “Golden-Eye Duck” of Audubon 1836 (subsp. Bucephala clangula).
● Cayenne; ex “Martin-pescheur du Brésil” of Brisson 1760, “Martin-pecheur vert et blanc de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 591, and “White and green Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (Chloroceryle).
● "52. CUCULUS.  ...  americanus.  7. C. cauda cuneiformi, corpore supra cinereo: subtus albo, maxilla inferiore lutea.  Cuculus carolinianus. Catesb. car. 9. t. 9.  Habitat in Carolina." (Linnaeus 1758) (Coccyzus). This name is the eighth toponym in avian nomenclature.
● North America; ex “Cinereous Coot” of Latham 1785 (Fulica).
● "76. ARDEA.  ...  americana.  5. A. vertice temporibusque nudis papillosis, fronte nucha remigibusque primariis nigris, corpore albo.  Grus americana alba. Catesb. carol. I. p. 75. t. 75. Edw. av. 132. t. 132.  Habitat in America septentrionali.  Caput subtus ad maxillam inferiorem rubrum est." (Linnaeus 1758) (Grus).
● Erroneous TL. North America (?= Cayenne); ex “Black-chested Eagle” of Pennant 1766 (?syn. Harpia harpyja).
● Cayenne; ex “Aigle d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 417 (Ibycter).
● Louisiana; ex “Pie-grièche de la Louisiane” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 397 (syn. Lanius ludovicianus).
● Cayenne; ex “Merula indica pectore cinnabarino” or “Jacapu” of Marcgrave 1648, “Red-breasted Indian Blackbird” of Willughby 1676, “Troupiale de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 236, fig. 2, and de Buffon 1770-1783, “Mocking bird of Guiana” of Bancroft 1769, and “Red-breasted Oriole” of Latham 1782 (syn. Leistes militaris).
● Paraguay; ex “Tordo degollado tercero” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 70 (syn. Leistes superciliaris).
● Louisiana and New York; ex “Canard Jensen de la Louisiane” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “American Wigeon” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Mareca).
● North America; ex Mergus merganser A. Wilson, 1814 (subsp. Mergus merganser).
● Erroneous inferred TL. America (= Île de France (= Mauritius) = Philippines); ex “Guespier de l’Île de France” and “Petit Guespier des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Merops).
● "74. MYCTERIA.  ...  americana.  1. MYCTERIA.  Jabiru-guacu. Marcgr. bras. 201. Pis. bras. 87. Raj. av. 96. Will. orn. 202. t. 47. f. 2. 4.  Habitat in America calidioreMagnitudo Ciconiæ, alba, remigibus rectricibusque nigro-purpurascentibus.  Conf. Grew. mus. t. 5. f. 1." (Linnaeus 1758) (Mycteria).
● Louisiana; ex “Gallinula martinica” of Ord 1825 (syn. Porphyrula martinica).
● North America; ex “Avosetta” of Dampier 1697, and “American Avoset” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Recurvirostra).
● "86. STRUTHIO.  ...  americanus.  3. S. digito postico rotundato mutico.  Struthio Camelus americanus. Raj. av. 36.  Nhanduguacu brasiliensibus. Marcgr. bras. 190. Pis. bras. 84.  Habitat in America australi." (Linnaeus 1758) (Rhea).
● South Carolina; ex “Parus Fringillago. Finch-Creeper” of Catesby 1731 (Setophaga).
● America (TL erroneously given as Europe); ex “Yellow-backed Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Setophaga americana).
● "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  ...  americanus.  2. C. narium tubulis eminentibus.  Caprimulgus s. Noctua sylvatica jamaicensis. Sloan. jam. 2. p. 298. t. 255. f. 1. Raj. av. 180.  Hirundo major subfusca miscella, macula alba sphærica in utraque ala. Brown. jam. 467.  Habitat in America calidiore." (Linnaeus 1758). This is the last avian name in the epochal tenth edition of Linnaeus (‡Siphonorhis).
● New York; ex “Black-throated Bunting” of Pennant 1785 (Spiza).
● Some part of America (= Cayenne); ex “Black-breasted Grosbeak” of Latham 1783 (Sporophila).
● Virginia (= Pennsylvania); ex “Urogallus minor. Cocq de bois d’Amérique”of Catesby 1731, and “Attagen americana” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Tympanuchus cupido).
● Río de La Plata; ex “Hirondelle à croupion roux et queue carrée” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Rufous-rumped Swallow” of Latham 1782 (unident.).

SUBSPECIES

Greater Rhea (araneipes)
SCI Name: Rhea americana araneipes
araneipes
L. aranea  spider  (cf. araneum  spider's web; Gr. αρανη aranē  javelin; αρανις aranis  deer) < Gr. αραχνης arakhnēs  spider; pes, pedis  foot  < Gr. πους pous, ποδος podos  foot.

Greater Rhea (americana)
SCI Name: Rhea americana americana
americ / americana / americanum / americanus
Mod. L. Americanus  American, of the Americas.  Received opinion states that America was named after Amerigo Vespucci (d. 1512), a Florentine merchant who promoted and sailed on several voyages to the New World 1500-1502.  The name was first used, of South America, by the cartographer Martin Waldseemüller in 1507.  More recently Lloyd & Mitchinson 2009, have repeated the argument that the Americas were named after Richard Ameryk (d. 1503), a Welsh merchant and High Sheriff of Bristol who invested in John Cabot’s voyages of discovery 1497-1498.  Coues 1882, refers to a Nicaraguan Indian name Americ for a local range of mountains, forgetting, however, that Nicaragua was not subdued by the conquistadores until 1522.
● North America; ex “Black-cheeked Eagle” of Latham 1781, and Pennant 1787 (?syn. Aquila chrysaetos).
● America (= eastern USA); ex Anas clangula of A. Wilson, 1814, and “Golden-Eye Duck” of Audubon 1836 (subsp. Bucephala clangula).
● Cayenne; ex “Martin-pescheur du Brésil” of Brisson 1760, “Martin-pecheur vert et blanc de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 591, and “White and green Kingsfisher” of Latham 1782 (Chloroceryle).
● "52. CUCULUS.  ...  americanus.  7. C. cauda cuneiformi, corpore supra cinereo: subtus albo, maxilla inferiore lutea.  Cuculus carolinianus. Catesb. car. 9. t. 9.  Habitat in Carolina." (Linnaeus 1758) (Coccyzus). This name is the eighth toponym in avian nomenclature.
● North America; ex “Cinereous Coot” of Latham 1785 (Fulica).
● "76. ARDEA.  ...  americana.  5. A. vertice temporibusque nudis papillosis, fronte nucha remigibusque primariis nigris, corpore albo.  Grus americana alba. Catesb. carol. I. p. 75. t. 75. Edw. av. 132. t. 132.  Habitat in America septentrionali.  Caput subtus ad maxillam inferiorem rubrum est." (Linnaeus 1758) (Grus).
● Erroneous TL. North America (?= Cayenne); ex “Black-chested Eagle” of Pennant 1766 (?syn. Harpia harpyja).
● Cayenne; ex “Aigle d’Amérique” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 417 (Ibycter).
● Louisiana; ex “Pie-grièche de la Louisiane” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 397 (syn. Lanius ludovicianus).
● Cayenne; ex “Merula indica pectore cinnabarino” or “Jacapu” of Marcgrave 1648, “Red-breasted Indian Blackbird” of Willughby 1676, “Troupiale de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 236, fig. 2, and de Buffon 1770-1783, “Mocking bird of Guiana” of Bancroft 1769, and “Red-breasted Oriole” of Latham 1782 (syn. Leistes militaris).
● Paraguay; ex “Tordo degollado tercero” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 70 (syn. Leistes superciliaris).
● Louisiana and New York; ex “Canard Jensen de la Louisiane” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “American Wigeon” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Mareca).
● North America; ex Mergus merganser A. Wilson, 1814 (subsp. Mergus merganser).
● Erroneous inferred TL. America (= Île de France (= Mauritius) = Philippines); ex “Guespier de l’Île de France” and “Petit Guespier des Philippines” of Brisson 1760 (Merops).
● "74. MYCTERIA.  ...  americana.  1. MYCTERIA.  Jabiru-guacu. Marcgr. bras. 201. Pis. bras. 87. Raj. av. 96. Will. orn. 202. t. 47. f. 2. 4.  Habitat in America calidioreMagnitudo Ciconiæ, alba, remigibus rectricibusque nigro-purpurascentibus.  Conf. Grew. mus. t. 5. f. 1." (Linnaeus 1758) (Mycteria).
● Louisiana; ex “Gallinula martinica” of Ord 1825 (syn. Porphyrula martinica).
● North America; ex “Avosetta” of Dampier 1697, and “American Avoset” of Pennant 1785, and Latham 1785 (Recurvirostra).
● "86. STRUTHIO.  ...  americanus.  3. S. digito postico rotundato mutico.  Struthio Camelus americanus. Raj. av. 36.  Nhanduguacu brasiliensibus. Marcgr. bras. 190. Pis. bras. 84.  Habitat in America australi." (Linnaeus 1758) (Rhea).
● South Carolina; ex “Parus Fringillago. Finch-Creeper” of Catesby 1731 (Setophaga).
● America (TL erroneously given as Europe); ex “Yellow-backed Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Setophaga americana).
● "102. CAPRIMULGUS.  ...  americanus.  2. C. narium tubulis eminentibus.  Caprimulgus s. Noctua sylvatica jamaicensis. Sloan. jam. 2. p. 298. t. 255. f. 1. Raj. av. 180.  Hirundo major subfusca miscella, macula alba sphærica in utraque ala. Brown. jam. 467.  Habitat in America calidiore." (Linnaeus 1758). This is the last avian name in the epochal tenth edition of Linnaeus (‡Siphonorhis).
● New York; ex “Black-throated Bunting” of Pennant 1785 (Spiza).
● Some part of America (= Cayenne); ex “Black-breasted Grosbeak” of Latham 1783 (Sporophila).
● Virginia (= Pennsylvania); ex “Urogallus minor. Cocq de bois d’Amérique”of Catesby 1731, and “Attagen americana” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Tympanuchus cupido).
● Río de La Plata; ex “Hirondelle à croupion roux et queue carrée” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Rufous-rumped Swallow” of Latham 1782 (unident.).

Greater Rhea (nobilis)
SCI Name: Rhea americana nobilis
nobilis
L. nobilis  admirable, famous, renowned, noble, high-born, nobleman  < noscere  to acknowledge.
● "44. PSITTACUS.  ...  nobilis.  4. P. macrourus viridis, genis nudis, humeris coccineis. Mus. Ad. Fr. 2. p.  Psittacus viridis, alarum costa superne rubente. Aldr. orn. l. 11. c. 5. Raj. av. 30, 181. Sloan. jam. 2. p. 297.  Psittacus mediae magnitudinis. Will. orn. 112. t. 16.  Habitat in America meridionali." (Linnaeus 1758) (Diopsittaca).
● “The yellow tufts of costal feathers on this beautiful bird, furnished the material for the splendid and costly royal robes, capes, and “lei’s,” or head-dresses of the Hawaiians in former days. The bunches of feathers called hulu... are still prepared and received in payment of a poll tax to the King; they are afterwards made up principally in “lei’s”, or head-bands worn by the ladies, and are beautiful but costly ornaments; but few can afford to wear them. The mantles made of these feathers, were, until lately, considered the principal treasures of the crown; now they are not to be seen; the labour of collecting the feathers and attaching them to a network base – a labour of years – being too great” (Peale 1848) (‡Moho).
● “Its large size and the great development of the feathers of its crown and beard render it a remarkable bird to look at; and the admirable way in which the original skins were prepared justify the large price of twenty pounds which I had to pay for my first specimen” (Gould 1880-1887) (Oreonympha). 
● Adolf Friedrich Albrecht Heinrich Herzog zu Mecklenburg (1873-1969) German naturalist, collector, explorer in tropical Africa 1907-1911, Gov. of Togoland 1912-1914 (Michel Rieser & Laurent Raty in litt.) (Pternistis).

Greater Rhea (albescens)
SCI Name: Rhea americana albescens
albescens
L. albescens, albescentis  whitish  < albescere  to become white  < albere  to be white  < albus  white.
● ex “Busard” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 423 (= ?♀) (?syn. Accipiter gentilis).
● ex “Blanchard” of Levaillant 1796, pl. 3 (= ☼) (syn. Stephanoaetus coronatus).

Greater Rhea (intermedia)
SCI Name: Rhea americana intermedia
intermedea / intermedia / intermedianus / intermedium / intermedius
L. intermedius  intermediate, that is between (cf. Late L. intermedium  intervention, between two others; Med. L. intermedium  interval).  These epithets are common in ornithology, highlighting forms considered to have intermediate plumage, size, distribution, etc.; only a few are shown below.
• “Genus Ardea.   ...   A. intermedia.  ...  Habitat in insula Java.  Simillima habitu ac colore Ardeae flavirostri, eadem dimidio fere minor.” (Wagler 1829) (Ardea).
• "73.  Coracina papuensis papuensis Gm.   ...   The birds from the Snow Mts. are exactly intermediate between C. p. papuensis from N. W. New Guinea and C. p. meekiana from S. E. New Guinea; so I propose to call the race found on the south side of the Central Range.   Coracina papuensis intermedia subsp. nov." (Rothschild 1931) (subsp. Coracina papuensis).
• "Ce tinamou présente, comme nous l'avons dit, des caractères de transition entre Calopezus elegans et Calopezus formosus.  Cette nouvelle espèce, ou peut-être race intermédiaire, qui paraît localisée dans les régions montagneuses du Nord-ouest de la République Argentine, nous la distinguerons avec le nom de:  Calopezus intermedius n. sp.   ...   Il est possible que Calopezus intermedius et Calopezus formosus représentent seulement des formes géographiques de Calopezus elegans" (Dabbene & Lillo 1913) ( subsp. Eudromia elegans).
• "Formicivora   ...   F. grisea  ...  Kommt in Brasilien, Cayenne und Guiana vor.   ...   F. rufatra  ...  Vaterland: Brasilien und Bolivien.   ...   F. intermedia.  ...  Vaterland: Columbien" (Cabanis 1847) (Formicivora).
• "Falco pondicerianus apud Horsfield is a race intermediate to Haliastur indus of India proper and H. leucosternum of Australia, having dark central streaks to the white portion of the plumage, but considerably less developed than (constantly) in the Indian bird..  ...  Of very many examples of the Indian race examined or beheld close, I certainly have never seen one that had the dark streaks or lines so little developed as in the Javanese bird, or most assuredly I should have remarked it.  To what extent the Indian and Australian races may thus grade into each other, in other intermediate localities, remains to be ascertained.  ...  Mr. Gurney informs me that he thinks the Javanese race should be distinguished by the name intermedius." (Blyth 1865) (subsp. Haliastur indus).
• "Then we have in Tenasserim, most abundant in the hills, but extending in the cold weather to the sea-board and the plains of Pegu, a race of melaschistus, which I will, for convenience sake, denominate VOLVOCIVORA  INTERMEDIA.  It is very close to melaschistus, and as such I originally identified it, but with 24 specimens before me I find that sex being ascertained no specimen of it can be mistaken for a specimen of the corresponding sex of melaschistus, but it is much the same size, and the old males are nearly as possible the same colour as the females of melaschistus.  ...  I am very doubtful whether this should be considered a subspecies or not, but it is a very distinguishable and perfectly constant race, and not one single specimen of true melaschistus has occurred to us throughout the region in which it is so abundant, and it may be best therefore to characterize it by a distinct name." (Hume 1877) (subsp. Lalage melaschistos).
• "5.  SETOPHAGA  INTERMEDIA, Nob.  ...  Espèce typique intermédiaire entre la S. vulnerata et la S. verticalis, Lafresn.  Elle diffère de la première par un bec plus grand et plus large, par la gorge cendrée, par le coloris de la queue, par la couleur de l'abdomen; la S. verticalis, Lafr. est jaune d'œuf en dessous." (Hartlaub 1852) (subsp. Myioborus miniatus).
• "3. CRYPTOLOPHA  INTERMEDIA  La Touche, sp. n.   Near C. tephrocephala (Anders.) and C. affinis (Hodgs.).  Differs from the former in having a much shorter bill, and the secondary coverts distinctly tipped with pale yellow, forming a well-marked bar; from C. affinis it differs in having a ring of feathers round the eye, yellow." (La Touche 1898) (Phylloscopus).
• “728. —  Pipreola viridis intermedia  ...  Forme intermédiaire entre la P. viridis de la Bolivie et la P. melanolæma de l’Ecuador, plus voisine de la dernière.” (Taczanowski 1884) (Pipreola).
• "Ploceus intermedius.  Sehr nahe mit meinem Ploceus larvatus verwandte Art.  Vorderkopf bis über den hintern Augenwinkel, Kehle, Oberhals und Ohrengegend schwarz, Hinterkopf und Nacken röthlich braungelb.  Mitte der Brust orangengelb, Seiten des Halses und Unterkörpers citrongelb.  Rücken gelbgrün, gegen den Schwanz hin citronengelb." (Rüppell 1845) (Ploceus).
• “This species is somewhat intermediate between Palaeornis schisticeps and P. cyanocephala in size and coloration, but is nearer P. schisticeps” (Rothschild 1895) (syn. Psittacula cyanocephala x Psittacula himalayana).
• "RHIPIDURA  INTERMEDIA, sp. nov.  ...  Dr. Sharpe's description of Rhipidura rufifrons in the "Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum," vol. iv., p. 319 (1879), evidently applies to this species, for he describes the tail feathers as being "distinctly tipped with white."  The type of Rhipidura rufifrons characterized by Dr. Latham, was obtained in New South Wales, and has the tips of the tail feathers pale brown, not white.  In the latter respect Rhipidura intermedia agrees with R. torrida, described and figured (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1865, p. 477, pl. xxviii.) by Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace, from the island of Ternate, but R. torrida differs from R. intermedia in having the ear-coverts and upper breast black." (North 1902) (subsp. Rhipidura rufifrons).
• "Sp. intermedia n. sp.  ... Der [Sp.] hypoleuca im Schnabel und der ganzen Gestalt äusserst ähnlich, nur etwas kleiner, von dieser durch die nicht weisse, sondern graue Färbung der Kehle und Brust verschieden, mithin fast ganz so gefärbt wie Sp. plumbea, von welcher intermedia sich nur unterscheidet durch den grössern Schnabel und die kürzeren abgerundeteren, daher nicht so zugespitzten Flügel; auch sind Kehle und Brust etwas dunkler als in plumbea und fehlt das weisse Fleckchen an der Wurzel des Unterkiefers; der weisse Spiegel auf dem Flügel ist kleiner und versteckter" (Cabanis 1851) (Sporophila).
• "Thamnistes anabatinus intermedius subsp. nov.  ...  This form, based on but one specimen, is clearly an intermediate between T. æquatorialis of eastern Ecuador and southeastern Colombia, and the quite different T. anabatinus group of Panama to Mexico.  Its crown and back closely agree in color with those of æquatorialis while the underparts are similar to those of T. a. coronatus; the tail and wings externally are intermediate but nearer to those of coronatus." (Chapman 1914) (subsp. Thamnistes anabatinus).
• "33.  Thamnophilus intermedius, sp. nov.   SP. CHAR.—Adult male: Similar to that of T. nigricristatus LAWR., but bill larger, and feathers of crest largely white in middle portion; adult female similar to that of T. doliatus, but with larger bill." (Ridgway 1888) (subsp. Thamnophilus doliatus).
• "ZOSTEROPS  INTERMEDIA.  ...  Very near Z. flava, but a little larger, more yellow on the forehead and less on the upper tail-coverts, and the black subocular streak not extending so far forward  ...  Hab. Macassar and Lombock.   Remark.—Mr. G. R. Gray attached the MS. name of intermedius to my Macassar specimen." (Wallace 1864) (subsp. Zosterops chloris).