Long-tailed Duck / Clangula hyemalis

Long-tailed Duck / Clangula hyemalis

Long-tailed Duck

SCI Name:  Clangula hyemalis
Protonym:  Anas hyemalis Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.126
Category:  Anseriformes / Anatidae /
Taxonomy Code:  lotduc
Type Locality:  arctic Europe and America; restricted to northern Sweden by Linnaeus, 1761, Fauna Svecica, ed. 2, p. 44.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

CLANGULA
(Anatidae; Ϯ Long-tailed Duck C. hyemalis) Mod. L. clangula  little shouter, babbler  < dim. L. clangere  to resound (cf. Gr. κλαγγαζω klangazō  the babble of cranes; κλαγγη klangē  cry, scream); flocks of wintering Long-tailed Duck on the sea emit distinctive yodelling notes which can be heard for some distance; "Genus CLANGULA, Gessner, (Garrot).  Species CLANGULA GLACIALIS, (Northern Garrot).  ...  The vulgar name is Long-tailed Duck.  The most remarkable circumstance connected with this bird was the construction of its trachea.  ...  The use of these complicated organs, more remarkable in the duck species than in any other of the feathered tribe, has yet to be demonstrated by the physiologist" (Leach in Ross 1819); “Clangula, the name commonly used for the Golden-eye, dates from 1819 ...  The type species on which this name was founded, was undoubtedly the Long-tailed Duck and not the Golden-eye” (BOU 1915); "Clangula Leach, in Ross, Voy. Disc., 1819, App., p. xlviii. Type, by monotypy, Anas glacialis Linné = Anas hyemalis Linné." (Peters, 1931, I, p. 178). 
Var. Glangula
Synon. Crymonessa, Harelda, Melonetta, Pagonetta.
● (Anatidaesyn. Bucephala Ϯ Common Goldeneye B. clangula) Based on “Garrot” of Cuvier 1817; specific name Anas clangula Linnaeus, 1758.
● (Anatidae?syn. Histrionicus Ϯ Harlequin Duck H. histrionicus) "Base of the bill plain ...Bill short and narrow.  A. glacialis, histrionica and clangula" (Fleming 1822).

clangula
Mod. L. clangula  little shouter, babbler  < dim. L. clangere  to resound (cf. Gr. κλαγγαζω klangazō  the babble of cranes; κλαγγη klangē  cry, scream); "61. ANAS.  ...  Clangula.  20. A. nigro alboque varia, capite tumido nigro-viridi; sinu oris macula alba. Fn. svec. 100. It. œl. 49.  Clangula. Gesn. av. 119. Alb. av. I. p. 92. t. 96.  Anas platyrhynchos mas. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 42. Will. orn. 282. t. 73. Raj. av. 142.  Habitat in Europa; sæpius maritimaUrinatur egregie, quæsitura cochleas, trachea ventricosa, oculis æneis." (Linnaeus 1758) (Bucephala).

hyemalis
L. hiemalis  of winter, winter-   < hiems, hiemis  winter.
● ex “Winter Falcon” of Pennant 1785 (syn. Buteo lineatus).
● "61. ANAS.  ...  hyemalis.  26. A. cauda cuneata: rectricibus intermediis longis, corpore griseo, temporibus albis. Fn. svec. 95.  Anas islandica. Worm. mus. 302.  Anas cauda acuta canadensis. Edw. av. 156. t. 156.  Habitat in Europa & America arcticaHieme ad nos migrat; æstate versus septentrionem ulterius pergit." (Linnaeus 1758) (Clangula).
● "98. FRINGILLA.  ...  hyemalis.  30. F. nigra, ventre albo.  Passer nivalis. Catesb. car. I. p. 36. t. 36.  Habitat in America." (Linnaeus 1758) (Junco).