Military Macaw / Ara militaris

Military Macaw / Ara militaris

Military Macaw

SCI Name:  Ara militaris
Protonym:  Psittacus militaris Syst.Nat.ed.12 ed.12 p.139
Category:  Psittaciformes / Psittacidae /
Taxonomy Code:  milmac
Type Locality:  No locality, Brabourne and Chubb, Bds. So. Am., 1912, p. 80, suggest Colombia.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1766
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

ARA
(Psittacidae; Ϯ Scarlet Macaw A. macao) Tupí onomatopoeia Ará for the macaws, but also used in combination to indicate bird (e.g. Araçarí, Araponga). Arára is a general name for parrots. "PREMIER GENRE.  ARA. (Ara.)  Le bec gros et convexe; la mandibule supérieure pointue, recourbée sur l'inférieure, et mobile; la langue épaisse, charnue et arrondie à son extrémité; une place dénuée de plumes sur chaque joue.   ESPÈCES.  1. L'ara rouge. Ara Macao. XI, 250.  2. L'ara bleu. Ara ararauna. XI, 272.  3. L'ara verd. Ara severus. XI, 274.  4. L'ara noir. Ara ater. XI, 284.  5. Le petit ara rouge. Ara aracanga. XI, 259.  6. La perriche ara. Ara makawuanna. XI, 384." (de Lacépède 1799); "Ara Lacépède, Tableaux Ois., 1799, p. 1. Type, by subsequent designation, Psittacus macao Linné. (Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 50, pt. 7, 1916, p. 119.)" (Peters, 1937, III, p. 180).   
Synon. Aracanga, Araclanga, Ararauna, Hemipsittacus, Macao, Macrocercus, Maracanus, Paracus.

militaris
L. militaris  military, martial, soldier-  < miles, militis  soldier.
● ex “Great Green Maccaw” of Edwards 1764; "Military Macaw  ... the whole bird having much the appearance of the German military uniform, from which circumstance it not inappropriately derives its distinctive name" (Perry 1811) (Ara).
● ex Coracina militaris Latham 1801, and “Grand Cotinga” of Levaillant 1801 (syn. Haematoderus militaris).
● ex “Rubicilla fusca major” of Edwards 1751, and “Turdus ater, pectore coccineo” of Linnaeus 1754 (Leistes).
● ex “Etourneau des terres Magellaniques” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 113 (syn. Leistes loyca).

SUBSPECIES

Military Macaw (mexicanus)
SCI Name: Ara militaris mexicanus
mexicanum / mexicanus
Mexico (probably named after Mexihtli, another name for Huitzilopochtli the Aztec god of war). This toponym also included New Spain, a former name for Mexico.
● ex “Colcuicuiltu” of Hernandez 1651, and “Caille de la Louisiane” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Colinus virginianus).
● ex “Hoitlalotl” of Hernandez 1651, and de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Courier Pheasant” of Latham 1783 (?syn. Geococcyx velox).
● Erroneous TL. New Spain (= Cayenne); ex “Troupiale brun de la Nouvelle Espagne” (= ☼) of Brisson 1760 (Gymnomystax).
● ex “Comaltecatl” of Hernandez 1651, and “Échasse du Méxique” of Brisson 1760 (subsp. Himantopus himantopus).
● Erroneous TL. Mexico (= Jamaica) (syn. Icterus leucopteryx).
● ex “Merula mexicana” of Seba 1734-1765, “Galgulus mexicanus” of Brisson 1760, “Roller du Mexique” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Mexican Roller” of Latham 1781 (?syn. Laniocera or Lipaugus sp.).
● Erroneous TL. New Spain (= Cayenne); ex “Faisan huppé de Cayenne” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 337, “Crested Pheasant” of Latham 1783, Phasianus cristatus J. Gmelin, 1789, and “Penelôpe hoatzin du Méxique” of Temminck 1807 (syn. Opisthocomus hoazin).
● ex “Acacalotl” of Hernandez 1651, “Acalotl” of Willughby 1676, and Ray 1713, “Numenius mexicanus varius” of Brisson 1760, “Acalot” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Mexican Ibis” of Latham 1785 (?syn. Plegadis falcinellus).
● ex “Hocitzanatl” of Hernandez 1651, and Ray, 1711, “Pica Mexicana major” of Brisson 1760, “Hocisana” of de Buffon 1770-1783, “Criard” of Pernety 1771, and “Mexican Crow” of Latham 1781 (Quiscalus).
● ex “Tecolotl” of Ray 1713, “Asio mexicanus” of Brisson, and “Mexican Eared Owl” of Latham 1781 (syn. Rhinoptynx clamator).
● ex “Yacapatlahoac” of Hernandez 1651, “Anas clypeata mexicana” or “Souchet du Méxique” of Brisson 1760, and “Mexican Shoveler” of Latham 1785 (syn. Spatula clypeata).
● Erroneous TL. Mexico (= Puerto Rico) (Todus).
● ex “Avis Cocho Psittaci mexicani species” of Seba 1734, and “Psittaca mexicana lutea” of Brisson 1760 (unident.).
● ex “Avis de cocho, psittaci species mexicana vario colore” of Seba 1734, “Psittacula mexicana cristata” of Brisson 1760, and “Crested Mexican Parrakeet” of Latham 1781 (unident.).
● ex “Caxcaxtototl” of Ray 1713, “Cotinga mexicana” of Brisson 1760, “Cacastol” of de Buffon 1770-1783, and “Mexican Stare” of Latham 1783 (unident.).

Military Macaw (militaris)
SCI Name: Ara militaris militaris
militaris
L. militaris  military, martial, soldier-  < miles, militis  soldier.
● ex “Great Green Maccaw” of Edwards 1764; "Military Macaw  ... the whole bird having much the appearance of the German military uniform, from which circumstance it not inappropriately derives its distinctive name" (Perry 1811) (Ara).
● ex Coracina militaris Latham 1801, and “Grand Cotinga” of Levaillant 1801 (syn. Haematoderus militaris).
● ex “Rubicilla fusca major” of Edwards 1751, and “Turdus ater, pectore coccineo” of Linnaeus 1754 (Leistes).
● ex “Etourneau des terres Magellaniques” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 113 (syn. Leistes loyca).

Military Macaw (bolivianus)
SCI Name: Ara militaris bolivianus
boliviae / boliviana / bolivianum / bolivianus / boliviensis
Bolivia (named after Simón Bolívar (1783-1830) "The Liberator", Venezuelan revolutionary, who helped to expel the Spaniards from their South American empire).