Tropical Kingbird / Tyrannus melancholicus

Tropical Kingbird / Tyrannus melancholicus

Tropical Kingbird

SCI Name:  Tyrannus melancholicus
Protonym:  Tyrannus melancholicus Nouv.Dict.Hist.Nat. 35 p.84
Category:  Passeriformes / Tyrannidae /
Taxonomy Code:  trokin
Type Locality:  Paraguay.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1819
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

TYRANNUS
(Tyrannidae; Ϯ Eastern Kingbird T. tyrannus) Based on "Le Tyran.    Tyrannus" of Brisson 1760: "Tandis que la femelle couve, le mâle chasse d'auprès de son nid tous les Oiseaux; même les Faucons & les Aigles." (see tyrannus ●); "NEUVIÈME ORDRE.  Bec échancré.   24. PIE-GRIÈCHE. Lanius.   ...   25.TYRAN. Tyrannus. {Le bec long, droit, et garni de soies à sa base.    26. GOBE-MOUCHE. Muscicapa.   ...   27. MOUCHEROLLE. Muscivora" (de Lacépède 1799); "Tyrannus Lacepède, 1799, Tabl. Méth. Mamm. Ois., p. 5. Type, by tautonymy, Lanius tyrannus Linnaeus." (Traylor in Peters 1979, VIII, 221). The tyrants, pittas, broadbills and their allies form a very distinct group and should, perhaps, be separated from other passerines in a new order Subosciniformes.
Var. Tirannus, Tiranus, Tryannus.
Synon. Despotes, Dioctes, Drymonax, Laphyctes, Melittarchus, Milvulus, Muscivora, Myiocapta, Satellus, Semnarchus, Tolmarchus.

tyrannus
L. tyrannus  tyrant  < Gr. τυραννος turannos  tyrant.
● ex “Tyran à queue fourchue” of Brisson 1760 (syn. Tyrannus savana).
● “The courage of this little bird is singular. He pursues and puts to flight all kinds of birds that come near his station, from the smallest to the largest, none escaping his fury” (Catesby 1731); "43. LANIUS.  ...  Tyrannus.  4. L. vertice nigro: stria longitudinali fulva.  Muscicapa corona rubra. Catesb. car. I. p. 55. t. 55.  Pica americana cristata. Frisch. av. 4. t. 62.  Habitat in America septentrionaliColor obscure cinereus, abdomine albo." (Linnaeus 1758)  (Tyrannus).

melancholica / melancholicus
L. melancholicus melancholic (i.e. bad-tempered) < Gr. μελαγχολικος melankholikos melancholic, bilious < μελαγχολια melankholia melancholy, bile.
● ex “Suirirí-guazú” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 198 (Tyrannus).

SUBSPECIES

Tropical Kingbird (satrapa)
SCI Name: Tyrannus melancholicus satrapa
SATRAPA
(Tyrannidae; Ϯ Yellow-browed Tyrant S. icterophrys) L. satrapa  satrap, Persian viceroy < Gr. σατραπης satrapēs  satrap  < Old Persian kšathra pāvan  country protector; "SUIRIRI? ICTEROPHRYS (Vieill.).  [Plate XII.]  Suiriri obscuro y amarillo , Azara.  Muscicapa icterophrys, Vieill.   ...   Of the numerous species of American birds which have been classed in the genera Tyrannula and Elania, and which exhibit much variety in the modifications of the beak, the present one has that organ the most elongate; indeed it approaches in form the beak of the Sylvicoline genus Myiodioctes, though the straight culmen, the comparatively short black tarsi, covered with seven or eight short scuta, the slender toes and sharp claws, show the true place of the bird to be among the Tyranninæ.  I had intended making this the type of a new genus, under the name of Satrapa (quasi a petty tyrant), but perceiving that M. D'Orbigny has included it in his genus Suiriri, I retain that generic name for the present." (Strickland 1844); "Satrapa Strickland, 1844, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 13, p. 414. Type, by original designation, "Suiriri? icterophrys (Vieill.)" = Muscicapa icterophrys Vieillot." (Traylor in Peters 1979, VIII, 183).  A suggested distinctive name for this, one of many tyrants, is Yellow-browed Satrap.
Synon. Sisopygis.

Tropical Kingbird (despotes)
SCI Name: Tyrannus melancholicus despotes
despotes
Gr. δεσποτης despotēs  lord, master.

Tropical Kingbird (melancholicus)
SCI Name: Tyrannus melancholicus melancholicus
melancholica / melancholicus
L. melancholicus melancholic (i.e. bad-tempered) < Gr. μελαγχολικος melankholikos melancholic, bilious < μελαγχολια melankholia melancholy, bile.
● ex “Suirirí-guazú” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 198 (Tyrannus).