Great Cormorant / Phalacrocorax carbo

Great Cormorant / Phalacrocorax carbo

Great Cormorant

SCI Name:  Phalacrocorax carbo
Protonym:  Pelecanus Carbo Syst.Nat.ed.10 p.133
Category:  Suliformes / Phalacrocoracidae /
Taxonomy Code:  grecor
Type Locality:  Europe; restricted to the ''rock-nesting form of the north Atlantic Ocean'' by Hartert, 1920, Vogel Pal. Fauna, p. 1387.
Author:  
Publish Year:  1758
IUCN Status:  

DEFINITIONS

PHALACROCORAX
(Phalacrocoracidae; Ϯ Great Cormorant P. carbo) L. phalacrocorax, phalacrocoracis  cormorant  < Gr. φαλακροκοραξ phalakrokorax,  φαλακροκορακος phalakrokorakos  cormorant  < φαλακρος phalakros  bald-headed  < φαλος phalos  white; ακρος akros  topmost; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak; "LE CORMORAN  ...  PHALACROCORAX  ...  Juxta maris littora versatur, paludesque frequentat. Modo in rupibus, modo in arboribus excelsis nidificat" (Brisson 1760): based on "Phalacrocorax" and "Corvus aquaticus" of many authors, "Carbo aquaticus" of Gessner 1555, and Linnaeus 1748, "Morfex" of Gessner 1555, Aldrovandus 1599-1603, Jonston 1650-1653, and Charleton 1668, "Nonnullis" of Gessner 1555, Schwenckfeld 1603, and Klein 1750, "Pelecanus subtus albicans" of Linnaeus 1746, "Plancus Corvus" of Klein 1750, and Pelecanus Carbo Linnaeus, 1758; "Phalacrocorax Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 60. Type, by tautonymy, Phalacrocorax = Pelecanus carbo Linné." (Peters 1931, 1, 85). The Great Cormorant was formerly trained in England to catch fish, but that necessary pastime can now only be seen in the Far East.   
Var. PhalaciocoraxPhalocrocorax, Phalarocorax, Phelacrocorax.   
Synon. Anacarbo, Botaurites, Carbo, Carbonarius, Compsohalieus, Cormoranus, Dilophalieus, Ecmeles, Enygrotheres, Euleucocarbo, Graculus, Graucalus, Gripeus, Gulosus, Halieus, Hydrocorax, Hypoleucus, Leucocarbo, Mesocarbo, Nannopterum, Nesocarbo, Notocarbo, Oligocorax, Pallasicarbo, Paracorax, Pliocarbo, Poikilocarbo, Pseudocarbo, Stictocarbo, Urile, Viguacarbo.
● (syn. Rynchops Ϯ Black Skimmer R. niger) "109. ZWEMMERGANS, in het Latyn Phalacrocorax.  Vogel van Madras met een scheermes-snabel.  PETIVER by RAY. Syn. Av. 194. f. 5." (Moehring 1758).

phalacrocorax
L. phalacrocorax, phalacrocoracis  cormorant  < Gr. φαλακροκοραξ phalakrokorax, φαλακροκορακος phalakrokorakos  cormorant  < φαλακρος phalakros  bald-headed  < φαλος phalos  white; ακρος akros  topmost; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak.
● ex Phalacrocorax Brisson, 1760 (syn. Phalacrocorax carbo).

carbo
L. carbo, carbonis  charcoal (i.e. black).
● “C. tridactylus, totus niger” (Pallas 1811) (Cepphus).
● "66. PELECANUS.  ...  Carbo.  3. P. cauda æquali, corpore nigro, rostro edentulo.  Pelecanus corpore atro, subtus albicante, rectricibus quatuordecim. Fn. svec. 116.  Carbo aquaticus. Gesn. av. 137.  Cervus [sic] aquaticus. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 55. Jonst. av. t. 47. Will. orn. 248. t. 63. Raj. av. 122. Mars. danub. 16. t. 36. Alb. av. 2. p. 74. t. 81.  Habitat in Europa; nidificat in altis arboribusCauda longior & laxior quam in reliquis aquaticis." (Linnaeus 1758) (Phalacrocorax).

Carbo
(Phalacrocoracidae; syn. Phalacrocorax Great Cormorant P. carbo) Specific name Pelecanus carbo Linnaeus, 1758; "VINGT-HUITIÈME ORDRE.  Bec crochu.  ...  96. CORMORAN. Carbo.  { Le bec un peu comprimé; la queue très-roide." (de Lacépède 1799); "Carbo Lacépède, Tabl. Méth. Mam. Ois., p. 15, 1799—type, by tautonymy, Pelecanus carbo Linnaeus." (Hellmayr and Conover, 1948, Cat. Birds Americas, Pt. I (2), p. 137).

SUBSPECIES

Great Cormorant (North Atlantic)
SCI Name: Phalacrocorax carbo carbo
carbo
L. carbo, carbonis  charcoal (i.e. black).
● “C. tridactylus, totus niger” (Pallas 1811) (Cepphus).
● "66. PELECANUS.  ...  Carbo.  3. P. cauda æquali, corpore nigro, rostro edentulo.  Pelecanus corpore atro, subtus albicante, rectricibus quatuordecim. Fn. svec. 116.  Carbo aquaticus. Gesn. av. 137.  Cervus [sic] aquaticus. Aldr. orn. l. 19. c. 55. Jonst. av. t. 47. Will. orn. 248. t. 63. Raj. av. 122. Mars. danub. 16. t. 36. Alb. av. 2. p. 74. t. 81.  Habitat in Europa; nidificat in altis arboribusCauda longior & laxior quam in reliquis aquaticis." (Linnaeus 1758) (Phalacrocorax).

Great Cormorant (Australasian)
SCI Name: Phalacrocorax carbo novaehollandiae
novaehollandae / novaehollandia / novaehollandiae
L. novus  new; Mod. L. Hollandia  Holland, Netherlands; i.e. New Holland (Mod. L. Nova Hollandia or Hollandia Nova), the name given to Western Australia by early Dutch explorers, and by which Australia was known to Europeans during the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries. In ornithology the name is usually synonymous with eastern Australia, especially the modern state of New South Wales.
● ex “New-Holland White Eagle”of Latham 1781 (Accipiter).
● ex “Crested Goatsucker” of Phillip 1789 (syn. Aegotheles cristatus).
● Erroneous TL. New Holland (= Van Diemens Land = Tasmania) (syn. Anthochaera paradoxa).
● ex “White-fronted Heron” of Phillip 1789 (Ardea).
● ex “New Holland Thrush” of atham 1783 (Coracina).
● ex “New-Holland Cassowary” of Phillip 1789, and White 1790 (Dromaius).
● ex “New Holland Penguin” of Latham 1824 (Eudyptula).
● ex "Crimson-billed Gull" of Latham, 1824 (Larus).
● ex “Crested Parrakeet” of Latham 1781 (syn. Nymphicus hollandicus).
● ex “New Holland Tern” of Latham 1824 (syn. Onychoprion anaethetus).
● ex “New Holland Shag” of Latham 1824 (subsp. Phalacrocorax carbo).
● ex “New Holland Creeper” of White 1790 (Phylidonyris).
 Erroneous TL. New Holland (= New Zealand) (syn. Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae).
● ex “Psittaceous Hornbill” of Phillip 1789 (Scythrops).
● ex “New-Holland Grebe” of Latham 1824 (Tachybaptus).
● ex “Blue-bellied Parrot” of Brown 1776 (syn. Trichoglossus moluccanus).
● ex “Mouse Owl” of Latham 1821 (Tyto).
● ex "Wattled Sandpiper" of Latham 1801 (subsp. Vanellus miles).

Great Cormorant (Eurasian)
SCI Name: Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis/hanedae
PHALACROCORAX
(Phalacrocoracidae; Ϯ Great Cormorant P. carbo) L. phalacrocorax, phalacrocoracis  cormorant  < Gr. φαλακροκοραξ phalakrokorax,  φαλακροκορακος phalakrokorakos  cormorant  < φαλακρος phalakros  bald-headed  < φαλος phalos  white; ακρος akros  topmost; κοραξ korax, κορακος korakos  raven  < κρωζω krōzō  to croak; "LE CORMORAN  ...  PHALACROCORAX  ...  Juxta maris littora versatur, paludesque frequentat. Modo in rupibus, modo in arboribus excelsis nidificat" (Brisson 1760): based on "Phalacrocorax" and "Corvus aquaticus" of many authors, "Carbo aquaticus" of Gessner 1555, and Linnaeus 1748, "Morfex" of Gessner 1555, Aldrovandus 1599-1603, Jonston 1650-1653, and Charleton 1668, "Nonnullis" of Gessner 1555, Schwenckfeld 1603, and Klein 1750, "Pelecanus subtus albicans" of Linnaeus 1746, "Plancus Corvus" of Klein 1750, and Pelecanus Carbo Linnaeus, 1758; "Phalacrocorax Brisson, Orn., 1, 1760, p. 60. Type, by tautonymy, Phalacrocorax = Pelecanus carbo Linné." (Peters 1931, 1, 85). The Great Cormorant was formerly trained in England to catch fish, but that necessary pastime can now only be seen in the Far East.   
Var. PhalaciocoraxPhalocrocorax, Phalarocorax, Phelacrocorax.   
Synon. Anacarbo, Botaurites, Carbo, Carbonarius, Compsohalieus, Cormoranus, Dilophalieus, Ecmeles, Enygrotheres, Euleucocarbo, Graculus, Graucalus, Gripeus, Gulosus, Halieus, Hydrocorax, Hypoleucus, Leucocarbo, Mesocarbo, Nannopterum, Nesocarbo, Notocarbo, Oligocorax, Pallasicarbo, Paracorax, Pliocarbo, Poikilocarbo, Pseudocarbo, Stictocarbo, Urile, Viguacarbo.
● (syn. Rynchops Ϯ Black Skimmer R. niger) "109. ZWEMMERGANS, in het Latyn Phalacrocorax.  Vogel van Madras met een scheermes-snabel.  PETIVER by RAY. Syn. Av. 194. f. 5." (Moehring 1758).

Great Cormorant (Moroccan)
SCI Name: Phalacrocorax carbo maroccanus
maroccana / maroccanus
Morocco.

Great Cormorant (White-breasted)
SCI Name: Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus
lucidum / lucidus
L. lucidus  clear, bright  < lux, lucis  light.
● ex “Shining Cuckow” of Latham 1782 (Chalcites).
● ex “Pica flor mas bello” of de Azara 1802-1805, no. 293 (syn. Chlorostilbon aureoventris).
● ex “Pic grivelé” or “Grand pic de l’Île de Luçon” of Sonnerat 1776 (Chrysocolaptes).